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CRIM 101 (448)
Lecture 7

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013 1 THE AFTERMATH OF CRIME A BRIEF REFRESHER  Precursors—circumstances that lead up to the criminal event  Transactions—what happened, where it happened, who was involved  Aftermath—how do victims respond? How do offenders respond if they’re caught, convicted, and punished? How does the general public react to crime? What are the actual costs of crime ANALYZING THE COSTS OF CRIME  The real costs of crime can be difficult to measure accurately  Direct financial losses (money or property stolen) are easiest to evaluate  How do you place a value on the pain caused by a minor injury, or by the feat of further victimization If somebody moves to different neighbourhood, purchases automobile tracking system or burglar alarm system after being victimized should these be included in the cost of crime VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE  One of main ways we find out about cost of crimeis through victimization surveys  According to the GSS, 25% of all violent incidents resulted in some form of physical injury  Only about 10% of victims of violence souhght medical care for their injuries ROBBERY  35% of robbery victims reported difficulties in carrying out their main activities (e.g., work, school, etc.)  39% said they were affected for period of between two days and a week  16% said their main activities had been distrupted for over 2 weeks 2 Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013 HOUSEHOLD VICTIMIZATION  Includes break and enter, theft of household property, automobile theft, etc.  63% of all reported losses were less than $500 per incident  42% were less than $100 after victims received compensation from insurance company THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY  Having credit cards, money or jewellery stolen while in shopping malls, commercial buildings, etc.  42% involved out-of-pocket expenses of less than a hundred dollars ROUGH ESTIMATES  Annual cost of crime in Canada estimated to be around %57 billion  $46 billion attributed primarily to health issues, lost wages and insurance settlements  $11 billion spent on operation of the criminal justice systme READING THE FINE PRINT Figures do not include expenditures on private security, burglar alarm systems, or other theft prevention devices. If figures from GSS used (rather than figures from UCR), the total annual cost of pain and suffering for all types of crime would be over $35 billion (not including direct economic losses, insurance costs). If this figure was added to estimates provided above, the actual cost of crime in Canada (including pain and suffering) would be closer to $92 billion a year. EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES  GSS reports that overwhelming majority of people in Canada (94%0 feel safe from crime  Majority of Canadians (59%) feel their neighbourhood is safer than other neighbourhood Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013 3 REACTIONS TO VIOLENT CRIME Angry -32% Upset -20% Fearful- 18% Shocked-12% More aware- 9% Annoyed-9% VULNERABILITY CONVERSION  Some individuals do become fearful of crime and may go through process know as vulnerable conversion  Feel they are more susceptible to the dangers of life than they thought  Being the victim of a serious (especially "random―) crime can cause people to reevaluate their notions about the world making sense, or about life being fair  Victims may feel weak and helpless and even start to blame themselves  Having home broken into is tantamount to invasion of privacy  May suffer additional distress if personal possessions to which they are emotionally attached are stolen or damaged AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOURS  Steps people take to distance themselves from situations they perceive to be dangerous  Moving to new neighbourhood or staying away from downtown core, especially at night (avoiding potential offenders) DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOURS  Precautionary measures people take to reduce their risks of being victimized  Getting a guard dog, installing a burglar alarm system in their home – defending their personal space OTHER REACTIONS  Many victims of crime react by talking about it with friends and neighbors, family members and co-workers  Even if they do eventually report to the police, victims often consult first with their friends and neighbours, family members or co-workers 4 Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013  Suggests that decision about reporting to police is influenced socially through contact with significant others THE FEAR OF CRIME  Fear of crime disproportionate to the actual amount of crime  Fear of crime might be as serious a problem as crime itself  Fear is difficult to define, and just as difficult to measure THE GENDER DIFFERENCE  95% of men and 93% of women express general satisfaction with their personal safety  Women are at least twice as likely as men to be fearful if they are on public transit alone at night, if they are home alone at night, or if they are walking alone after dark  Increased level of fear could be due to fact that women are smaller or weaker than the average male offender, or they have been socialized into regarding themselves as weak and vulnerable  In reality, rate of violent victimization is quite similar for men and women, except men are more likely to be physically assaulted or bobbed, wherears women are 5 times as likely to be victim of a sexual assault  Both genders are less fearful if they are frequently use public transport AGE DIFFERENCES  Violent victimization rates lowest for people over age of 65 and highest for those between ages of 15 and 24  Older people continue to express concerns about their personal safety  Might be caused by tendency to regard themselves as being weaker than the typical offender and hence more vulnerable  Media images of older people being preyed upon by younger, stronger people (who are seemingly ruthless and eager to take advantage of them) may contribute to this fear THE URBAN-RURAL DIVIDE Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013 5 WHY THE DIFFERENCE?  More likely to encounter strangers from different culture or social backgeounds  More likely to encounter physical incivilities (e.g., broken windows, graffiti, run-down buildings etc.,)  More likely to encounter social incivilities and alcohol use in public places, panhandlers and squeegee kids on street corners, etc.,)  GSS reports that rates of victimization are indeed higher in urban areas esp in thouse urban areas with high number LABELLING AND SOCIAL STIGMA  Labelling theory addresses the issue of what happens to offenders if they are apprehended and punished in the aftermath of the criminal event  Advances an explanation for why certain individuals engage in ongoing criminal activity THE SOCIAL REACTION TO DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR  From perspective of labelling theory, once a label – e.g., ―juvenile delinquent‖, ―criminal‖ or a ―convict‖ – is affixed, it is difficult to get rid of it ( sterotyping)  Offenders might start to view themselves in accordance with label they have been given MORAL ENTREPRENEURS  Also known as moral crusaders or claims-makers  Individuals or groups who have the power to create and/ or enforce social norms  Includes lobbyists, pressure groups, professionals, specialists, and even government officials or agencies AMPLIFYING THE PROBLEM 6 Crim 101 Lecture 7 March14 , 2013 ENTER THE MUGGER  1978 book Policing the Crisis, by Hall et al.  Between Aug 1972-Aug 1973, ―mugging‖ attracted massive attention from the media, politicians , interest groups and various representatives of British criminal justice system  Sudden interest sparked by robbery in which an elderly man was stabbed to death, leading to public outcry, demands for stiffer sentencing and war on viol
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