Class Notes (806,585)
Canada (492,337)
Criminology (2,095)
CRIM 101 (448)
Lecture 8

lecture 8.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 1 THE FAMILY AND THE HOUSEHOLD FOLLOWED BY A LITTLE LEISURE TIME ACTIVITY ASSAULTS AGAINST CHILDREN  Approximately 60% of assaults against children under the age of 6 are committed by family members  Close to two-thirds of those assaults are committed by parents (including step-parents, foster-parents and adoptive parents)  Two-thirds of homicides against children and youth also committed by close family member; 60% committed by the father and 32% by the mother SEXUAL ASSAULTS AGAINST CHILDREN  One-third of sexual assaults committed by family members  Half of sexual assaults committed by family members when victim is under age of six, slightly less than half when victim is between ages of six and ten  In most cases, offender in family-related sexual assaults is a mare relative; over 1/3 its brothers, rest are other male relatives ABDUCTIONS OF CHILDREN  More than two-thirds of all abductions are parental abductions  Distribution of offenders evenly split between fathers and mother THE PRECURSORS  In most cases of physical assault and homicide against children and youth, the main contributing factor (or precursor) is either frustration or an argument  Young children and female children/ youth more likely to be assaulted or killed in private dwelling (usually their won home)  Males over age of 11 more likely to be assaulted on streets, at school, in parking lots or in other public places  In the case of younger children, it may be difficult for them to leave an abusive environment, thus explaining their increased risk of victimization in their own home 2 Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 THE CONSEQUENCES (AFTERMATH)  In both physical and sexual assaults, almost half of children and youth do not sustain injuriesof anykind  If they are injured, most involve minor injuries that do not require medical treatment  Only 2% of females and 1% of males sustain serious injuries  Long-term consequences of family related-violence against children and youth should not be underestimated  Abused children and youth more likely to be aggressive, abusive towards their future spouses or children, and to suffer from other emotional problems  Children/youth who have been victims of family-related violence or have witnessed family-related violence are more likely to engage in violent criminal activity when older CRIMES AGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD THE UCR vs. THE GSS  2004 Uniform Crime Report suggests that property crime, motor vehicle theft, and break-ins have generally been on decline since the early 1990’s  2004 General Social Survey suggests that household victimization (as reported by survey participants) has continued to climb, increasing by 14% since 2999, and by 28% since 1993 RETURN OF THE RAT  According to routine activities theory, opportunity theory and environmental criminology, crimes against the household due to contemporary life-style  People spending more time away from home – at work, at school, at play or travelling between these points  Leaving their homes and their personal property unprotected RISK FACTORS FOR CRIMES AGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD  Risk of household victimization considerably higher in urban areas then in rural areas  Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who have lived in their dwelling for less than a year Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 3  Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who rent (rather than own) their dwelling and who live in duplexes, row houses or semi- detached houses SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS  Sacco and Kennedy say that there is no clear-cut relationship between household income and the risk of household victimization  According to most recent GSS, however, households with annual incomes of $60,000 or higher had highest rate of victimization – 17% higher than middle income households, and 88% higher than lower income households STRAIN THEORY  Findings contradict arguments by theorists such as Gottfredson and Hirschi – i.e., that most crimes are committed on the spur-of-the-moment, because of the thrill or excitement involved and that offenders are not motivated by the prospects of economic gain  Findings that higher income households experience higher rates of victimization than lower income households tend to support explanations premised upon social strain, social inequality and relative deprivation SEARCHING FOR TARGETS  According to Brantinghams’ environmental criminology, offenders are unlikely to explore distant , unknown areas in search of suitable targets  Offenders most likely to search for targets that fall within their normal activity space (i.e., where they conduct their day-to-day, routine activities)  Offenders prefer targets close to their won homes, because of time and difficulty involved in travelling long distances and dangers associated with venturing into unknown territory  Households most susceptible to victimization are those that offer the offender easiest access, and lowest risk of detection and apprehension  Prefer corner dwellings on (or close to) major transportation routes, esp. inconspicuous dwellings that are partially hidden or where there is little or no surveillance 4 Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND CRIME LEISURE DEFINED  S & K define leisure as free time or spare time that is used specifically for recreation or play  Activities that people voluntarily choose to engage in, because they are source of pleasure or satisfaction WHO HAS THE TIME?  Teenagers have more leisure time than married couples who are raising the family, or people who are working full-time  Some forms of teen offending are also forms of leisure – e.g., painting graffiti on schools or joyriding in stolen automobiles  Even when not forms of offending, leisure-time activities often take place in venues where there is a considerable amount of crime and victimization – e.g., raves, internet cafes, bars and sporting events LEISURE AS A CORRUPTER  Oft-repeated claims that certain leisure activities cause people – to become criminals  In the past, attention focused on corrupting influence of everything from comic books to rock and roll music to movie violence  Attention now shifted to contemporary leisure-time activities, such as internet usage and violent video games VIOLENCE IN THE MEDIA THE WHOLE TRUTH  Some observers claim that murder rates doubled during 10-15 year period following introduction of “free” television in Canada and the US  Also claim that 10% of youth violence is caused by television viewing Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 5 AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH  Some studies found negative effects (i.e., watching media violence actually reduces violent behavior in real life)  Other studies found weak effects that could be explained by other factors (e.g., individuals who already display violent tendencies may be inclined to watch violent movies or violent TV programs)  Many studies claiming to have found link between watching violent media and increase in aggression were conducted in artificial settings, where research subjects were encouraged to act in aggressive ways that would not be encouraged or tolerated outside of laboratory or research setting A ROUTINE ACTIVITIES APPROACH  One study found increased television viewing actually decrease crime rates  Motivated offenders and prospective victims were at home in front of their TV sets and hence less likely to be in public settings where they could intersect with each other in time and space  Being at home also provides capable guardianship COPYCAT CRIMES  Small but growing body of evidence that some offenders do get ideas for real-life crimes from movies, television and news sources  2002 study of serious (violent) juvenile offenders incarcerated in adult correctional facility in Florida found that 1/3 had considered possibility of committing copycat crime and ¼ had actually attempted a copycat crime VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES  Claims re: induced seizures, attentional inertia and poor academic performance  Claims that violent video games desensitize players to violence, and make them less empathetic to suffering of others  Some observers argue that point-and-shoot games teach reflexes and motor skills required to shoot at targets with accuracy, and without hesitation 6 Crim 101 Lecture 8 March 21 , 2013 DAWSON COLLEGE  In Montreal  Kimveer Gill (25 years old)  Wounded 19, killed one student (Anastasia DeSouzea)  Victims ranged in age 17-47, most in their teens K
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.