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CRIM 101 (459)


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CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

CHAPTER 6 NOTES OPPORTUNITYLIFESTYLE EXPOSURE THEORYENTER THE VICTIMFor a crime to occur there has to be an opportunity or a victimImportant to understand how victims own behavior and decisionmaking can contribute to shaping of the criminal event ENTER THE VICTIMIZATION SURVEYSLifestyle exposure opportunity and routine activities theory evolved in the 1970s when victimization surveys started to gain in popularityVictimization surveys tried to figure out who was being victimized who was doing the victimization what sort of victimization was involved what the relationship was between victim and victimizer if any where and when incidents of victimization take place how often victimization occurred etcRISING CRIME RATESAlso a time when crime rates were rising dramatically and victims were demanding the government take action to protect themAbout 500 growth in total crime between 1962 and 1990HAPPY TOGETHERVictimology opportunity theory lifestyle exposure theory routine activities theory and rational choice theory are quite similarAll tend to view criminal event in terms of timespace continuum or environmental backcloth and examine ways in which offenders and victims intersect in time and space in the absence of a capable guardianLIFESTYLE EXPOSURE THEORYIntroduced in 1978 by Hindelang Gottfredson and GarofaloSame Gottfredson who coauthored A General theory of Crime with Travis Hirschi 1990Lifestyles of individuals and groups follow certain patterns eg where they go when they go there who they go with or who they meet there what they do when they get thereOffenders dont select victims at random instead they follow similar lifestyle patterns to their victims and often resemble victims in terms of age gender social class and ethnic originEIGHT INDECENT PROPOSITIONS1The more time you spend esp at night in public places the more likely you are to become a victim2Lifestyle choices influence the likelihood that you will spend more or less time in public places3People interact with other people who share similar lifestyles4The chances are higher of being victimized by someone who has the same demographic profile as you in terms of age gender social class and ethnic background5Lifestyle choices influence the amount of time you spend with nonfamily members or capable guardians6The chances of becoming a victim of crime increase with amount of time you spend with nonfamily members
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