THE FAMILYAND THE HOUSEHOLD
FOLLOWED BYALITTLE LEISURE TIMEACTIVITY
o Approximately 60% of assaults against children under the age of six are
committed by family members.
o Close to two-thirds of those assaults are committed by parents (including
step-parents, foster-parents, and adoptive parents).
o Two-thirds of homicides against children and youth also committed by
close family member; 60% committed by the father, and 32% by the mother.
o One-third of sexual assaults committed by family members.
o Half of sexual assaults committed by family members when victim is
under age of six, slightly less than half when victim is between ages of six and
o In most cases, offender in family-related sexual assaults is a male relative;
over one-third it's the father, slightly one-third its brothers, rest are other
male relatives. ABDUCTIONS OF CHILDREN
o More than two-thirds of all abductions are parental abductions.
o Distribution of offenders evenly split between fathers and mothers.
o In most cases of physical assault and homicide against children and
youth, the main contributing factor (or precursor) is either frustration or an
o Young children and female children/ youth more likely to be assaulted or
killed in private dwelling (usually their own house).
o Males over age of 11 more likely to be assaulted on streets, at school, in
parking lots, or in other public places.
THE PRECURSORS cont.
In the case of younger children, it may be difficult for them to leave an abusive
environment, thus explaining their increased risk of victimization in their own
home. THE CONSEQUENCES (AFTERMATH)
o In both physical and sexual assaults, almost half of
children and youth do not sustain injuries of any kind.
o If they are injured, most involve minor injuries that
do not require medical treatment.
o Only 2% of females and 1% of males sustain serious
THE CONSEQUENCES (AFTERMATH) cont.
o Long-term consequences of family related-violence against children and
youth should not be underestimated.
o Abused children and youth more likely to be aggressive, abusive towards
their future spouses or children, and to suffer from other emotional problems.
o Children/youth who have been victims of family-related violence or have
witnessed family-related violence are more likely to engage in violent criminal
activity when older. CRIMESAGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD
CRIMESAGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD cont.
THE UCR vs. THE GSS
o 2004 Uniform Crime Report suggests that property crime, motor vehicle
theft, and break-ins have generally been on decline since the early 1990’s.
o 2004 General Social Survey suggests that household victimization (as
since 1999, and by 28% since 1993.as continued to climb, increasing by 14%
RETURN OF THE RAT
o According to routine activities theory, opportunity theory and
environmental criminology, crimes against the household due to
contemporary lifestyles. • People spending more time away from home – at work, at school, at
play, or travelling between these points.
• -Leaving their home sand their personal property unprotected.
RISK FACTORS FOR CRIMES AGAINST THE
o Risk of household victimization considerably higher in urban areas than
in rural areas.
o Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who have lived in
their dwelling for less than a year.
o Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who rent (rather
than own) their dwelling , and who live in duplexes, row house or semi-
SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS
o Sacco and Kennedy say that there is no clear-cut relationship between
household income and risk of household victimization.
o According to most recent GSS, however, households with annual incomes
of $60,000 or higher had highest rates of victimization – 17% higher than
middle income households, and 88% higher than lower income households.
the spur-of-the-moment, because of the thrill or excitement involved, and that offenders are not motivated by the prospects of
o Findings that higher income households experience higher rates of victimization than lower income households tend to
support explanations premised upon social strain, social inequality, and relative deprivation.
SEARCHING FOR TARGETS
o According to Brantinghams’ environmental criminology, offenders are
unlikely to explore distant, unknown areas in search of suitable targets. o Offenders most likely to search for targets that fall within their normal
activity space (i.e., where they conduct their day-to-day, routine activities).
SEARCHING FOR TARGETS cont.
o Offenders prefer targets close to their own homes, because of time and difficulty involved
in travelling long distances, and dangers associated with venturing into unknown territory.
o Households most susceptible to victimization are those that offer the offender easiest access,
and lowest risk of detection and apprehension.
o Prefer corner dwellings on (or close to) major transportation routes, esp. inconspicuous
dwellings that are partially hidden or where there is little or no surveillance.
o S & K define leisure as free time or spare time tat is
used specifically for recreation or play. o Activities that people voluntarily choose to engage
in, because they are source of pleasure or satisfaction.
WHO HAS THE TIME?
o Teenagers have more leisure time than married couples who are raising a family, or people
who are working full-time.
o Some forms of teen offending are also forms of leisure – e.g., painting graffiti on schools or
joyriding in stolen automobiles.
o Even when not forms of offending, leisure-time activities often take place in venues where
there is a considerable amount of crime and victimization – e.g., raves, internet cafes, bars and
o Oft-repeated claims that certain leisure activities cause people – esp.
young people – to become criminals. o In the past, attention focused on corrupting influence of everything from
comic books to rock and roll music to movie violence.
o Attention now shifted to contemporary leisure-time activities, such as
internet usage and violent video games.
VIOLENCE IN THE MEDIA
THE WHOLE TRUTH
o Some observers claim that murder rates doubled during 10-15 year period
following introduction of “free” television in Canada and the US.
o Also claim that 10% of youth violence is caused by television viewing.
AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH
o Some studies found negative effects (i.e., watching media violence actually reduces violent
behaviour in real life). o Other studies found weak effects that could be explained by other factors (e.g., individuals
who already display violent tendencies may e inclined to watch violent movies or violent TV
o Many studies claiming to have found link between watching violent media and increase in
aggression were conducted in artificial settings, where research subjects were encouraged to act
in aggressive ways that would not be encouraged or tolerated outside of laboratory or research
o One study found increased television viewing actually had the effect of
decreasing crime rates.
o Motivated offenders and prospective victims were at home in front of
their TV sets, and hence less likely to be in public setting where they could
intersect with each other in time and space.
o Being at home also provides capab