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CRIM 101 (464)
Lecture

Crim 101 - lecture notes week 12.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 101
Professor
Adrienne Peters

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PUBLIC POLICY & CRIME PREVENTION – CHAPTER 11 “GET TOUGH” APPROACH • Assumes that offenders will be deterred by stiffer sentences and harsher terms of  imprisonment • Little evidence in support of this • E.g., Bill C­10 – responding to public demands, more youth can be charged for  crimes, child sex offenders harsher, trafficking/ drug, tarnished reputation in terms  of criminal justice in Canada; but not necessarily best approach US EXPERIENCE • US has three strike rules, mandatory sentencing guidelines, and war on drugs • US has highest per capita incarceration rates in world (743 per 100,000) – about  six times rate in Canada (117 per 100,000) • Prison population in US doubled between 1992 and 2007 ­ ~2.3 million in 2007 • Death penalty ­ Thought to be ultimate deterrent • 34 states have death penalty • 2010: 46 executions ­ 44 lethal injection ­ 1 electrocution ­ 1 firing squad Race Executed Total Population White 27 (57%) 75% Black  13 (28%) 12% Latino/ a 5 (11%) 12% Native Am 1 (2%) 0.9% • US continues to have much higher rate of violent crime than Canada • Any decline in overall crime rate in US has been mirrored in Canada HANG ‘EM HIGH • Louisiana in top five in US for executions; second highest murder rate and fifth  highest crime rate • Louisiana passed 1995 amendment authorizing death penalty for child rape; no  effect on reducing indictments for (or counts of) child rape RATIONAL CHOICE DETERRENCE • Rational choice theorists argue that would­be offenders weigh possible benefits of  criminal activities against possible costs • Similar to Classical School of Criminology – certainty, celerity and severity of  punishment would be sufficient deterrent for rational, free­willed individuals LOCK ‘EM UP • Arguments in favor of lengthier terms of imprisonment: • Incapacitate (refers to the effect of a sentence in terms of positively preventing  (rather than merely deterring) future offending) offender ­ Specific deterrence ­ General deterrence BUT DOES IT WORK • Many chronic, serious offenders are substance abusers; lack work skills or  education to contemplate alternatives • Some criminological theorists say that most criminals act impulsively, with  limited consideration for long­term consequences CUTTING RECIDIVISM (re­offending) • Study of 400 young offenders in Vancouver serving mean sentences of 100­168  days • Previously served average of 33 months on probation • Recidivism rate still 81% within 12 months of release BOOT CAMPS • Based on military model • Thought that these activities reduce impulsivity and increase positive attitudes  towards society PUTTING BOOTS TO BOOT CAMPS • 2001 study comparing juvenile offenders in camps to those in traditional  corrections found no significant difference in impulsivity or pro­social attitudes • 2005 study of long­term arrest data found no difference between long­term  recidivism rates for those who had been in boot camps and those in traditional  corrections OTHER APPROACHES • Public health model, community policing, social development, and opportunity  reduction • Attempt to address problem of crime by preventing it before it happens, usually  by trying to eliminate what are believed to be its root causes PUBLIC HEALTH MODELS • Give warnings • Possible consequences COMMUNITY POLICING • Also referred to as problem­oriented policing • Community policing seeks to identify potential problems/ problem areas in early  stages, and prevent them from growing • Police still enforce laws, but are also concerned with solving problems that may  not be criminal • Some elements: ­ Partnership with volunteer agencies­community involvement in policing ­ Officers committed to one particular area for extended periods of time  ­ Decentralization of police give more decision making power to lower ranking  officers DOES IT REALLY WORK • May not have direct effect on reducing amount of serious crime in community,  but may reduce fear of crime  • Difficult to demonstrate direct cause­effect because programs target problem  behaviors in infancy stages in results may not be evident for years to come OTHER APPROACHES • Public health model, community policing, social development, and opportunity  reduction • Attempt to address problem of crime by preventing it before it happens, usually  by trying to eliminate what are believed to be its root causes SOCIAL DEVLEOPMENT • Crime prevention through social development views the cause of crime as being  rooted in social conditions ­ Family ­ Poverty  ­ School • By focusing efforts and money on improving lives of children
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