CRIM 101 Lecture Notes - Public Intoxication, Domestic Violence

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Published on 13 Sep 2012
Department
Course
The “typical” offender
- Most offenders sre young males (more than 75% in some offence categories)
Excuses, Excuses
- Excuse-based explanation (denial of responsibility)
- Offender may agree that act was wrong, but say that he/she didn’t do it
Justification
- Offender accepts responsibility but claims the act was justified
- Offender says the victim deserved it or “was asking for it”, or that “Everyone else does it, so why
shouldn’t it?”
Feelings of Guilt
- Known as “techniques of neutralization
- Offenders do experience feelings of guilt, and find it necessary to rationalize/justify their
behaviour
Victim Characteristics
- Categorized as same type of people (offenders)
- Individuals most likely to be victimized are young males, 15-24 years of age, who are poor,
and/or from ethnic minorities
- People over 65 years of age are least likely to be victimized
- Relatively little difference between genders in term of overall risk of personal victimization
Victim Awareness
- Victims often don’t realize or acknowledge they’ve been victimized
- May not define what happened to them as a crime
- Especially true if crime committed by a friend, acquaintance or family member
Bystanders & Witness
- Bystanders and witnesses may deter or prevent a crime by their presence
- Offenders may be reluctant to commit a crime in front of witnesses or possible interveners
- Bystanders and witnesses may prevent a crime from escalating, by breaking up a fight, or by
calling the police
- Bystanders may also facilitate crime:
o Encouraging a fight
o Encouraging someone to vandalize a property
o Participating in a group that witnesses and encourages a sexual assault
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The Police
- Police often have direct influence on whether or not an act comes to be regarded as a crime
- May let someone off with warning if they come from a “good family”, yet arrest someone who
does exactly the same thing because he/she is a “street kid”
- If police are encouraged in proactive policing, (have more patrols and actively search out
crimes), there is higher likelihood of an act being defined as criminal
- If engaged in reactive policing (only respond to crimes that are reported to them or that they
happen to witness) then fewer acts are likely to be defined as crimes
Reporting Crimes
- Many crimes do not even come to the attention of the police
- Victims decide for one reason or another not to report them
- Unreported/unknown amount of crime is estimated to be as high as 66% or more of all crimes
that are committed
- Victims more likely to report serious crimes or crimes where perpetrator is a stranger
- Less likely to report less serious crimes or crimes where perpetrator is known to them
- Victims of crime sometimes involved in criminal activities themselves, and are reluctant to draw
attention of police to their own activities
The Dark Figure of Recording
- Once crime is reported to police, it goes through process of assessment, classification and
(perhaps) recording
- Police decision-making influenced by a variety of factors, including relationship (if any) between
offender and victim, policing style of the individual officer, characteristics of the suspect, and
preferences of the complainant
The Kansas City Experiment
- 1972-1973 study in Kansas City
- Tested proactive, reactive and control responses to police visibility
- Surveyed 15 beats 5 proactive, 5 reactive, 5 control
- 40% or more of police officers’ time is uncommitted
- No statistically significant differences in crime rates over period of study
- Lowest crime rate reported in reactive beats
- No significant increase or decrease in arrest rates between three groups
- No significant increase in citizens’ perceptions of crime risks
Order Maintenance Crackdowns
- Assumption that aggressive order maintenance will reduce serious crime
- Associated when Wilson and Kelling’s Broken Windows theory – that social disorder leads to
more serious crime if not attended to
- Focus on hot spots areas that produce a large number of crime reports or requests for police
services
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Document Summary

Most offenders sre young males (more than 75% in some offence categories) Offender may agree that act was wrong, but say that he/she didn"t do it. Offender accepts responsibility but claims the act was justified. Offender says the victim deserved it or was asking for it , or that everyone else does it, so why shouldn"t it? . Offenders do experience feelings of guilt, and find it necessary to rationalize/justify their behaviour. Categorized as same type of people (offenders) Individuals most likely to be victimized are young males, 15-24 years of age, who are poor, and/or from ethnic minorities. People over 65 years of age are least likely to be victimized. Relatively little difference between genders in term of overall risk of personal victimization. Victims often don"t realize or acknowledge they"ve been victimized. May not define what happened to them as a crime. Especially true if crime committed by a friend, acquaintance or family member.

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