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CRIM 103 (150)


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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 103
Jennifer Wong

Behaviorism: - Founded by John B. Watson, 1913 o Psychology is science of behaviour o Focus on relationship between stimulus and response - B.F. Skinner o Thoughts irrelevant to science of behaviour o We should share what people do, not what they think o Research on animals important for revealing laws o Things should be measureable if it is to be called science Classical Conditioning: - Procedure: o Pair neutral stimulus with significant stimulus to induce outcome o Neutral stimulus alone then induces outcome - Pavlov: dogs + food + bell o Food = unconditioned stimulus o Salivation = unconditioned stimulus o Bell = conditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning: - Subject operates on environment and is rewarded (reinforced) or punished - Subject associates behaviour with particular consequence o Positive versus negative reinforcement o Positive versus negative punishment o Extinction o Avoiding consequences = negative reinforcement o Positive punishment = subject receives something bad (spanking a child) o Negative punishment = subject has something removed (removal of car) o Extinction = behaviour gets no reaction at all, subject stops behaving in that manner Social Learning Factors in Aggression: Expectancy Theory: - Julian Rotter - Whether behaviour occurs depends on our expectancies and how much we value the outcomes Observational Learning: - Albert Bandura (1962) - Modeling: children develop behaviours through watching models - The more respected the model, the stronger the behaviour - If celebrities commit crimes with no punishment, people believe their behaviours aren’t that bad Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study: - 72 children aged 3-6 - Groups exposed to aggressive versus nonaggressive adult models - Children exposed to aggressive models more likely to play with aggressively with toys - Supports social learning theory (children imitate behaviour from models even without reinforcement) Differential Association Theory: - Sutherland (1947) - Criminality learned through interactions - Key factors: people you associated with o How long, frequently, meaningfully
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