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CRIM 103 (152)

Cognitive, Behavioural, and Personality Characteristics and Crime.docx

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CRIM 103
Jennifer Wong

Language Deficiencies: - Increase risk of antisocial behaviour - Brownlie (2004): 5 year olds with language impairment more delinquent at age 19 - May have indirect effect on delinquency IQ: - Intellectual deficiency: IQ < 70 - Inverse relationship between IQ and delinquency - IQ gap 9 to 14 points for offenders/non-offenders Intellectual Imbalance: - Full scale IQ: o Verbal IQ + performance IQ - Imbalance: o VIQ and PIQ differ by 12+ points - Persons with PIQ > VIQ more likely in delinquent populations Are “Smarter” People Really Less Likely to Commit Crime: - Differential detection hypothesis - Smart people are able to escape more efficiently than not smart people - Official reports versus self-reports - Yea-saying IQ versus Intelligence: - IQ: a specific test: o Predictive of school performance o Many argue IQ tests are biased o Nat. Acad. Sciences & APA task Force on Intelligence conclude no clear bias - Intelligence – broad, all-encompassing ability - Delinquents score lower on IQ tests, but not necessarily less intelligent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): - 3 behaviours: o Inattention, impulsivity, excessive motor activity - Symptoms before age 7; 2+ settings; interfere with functioning - 3-7% of children in US; 5:1 M to F - Both hereditary and environmental factors - EEG shows underarousal o Ritalin ADHD and Delinquency: - Indirect effect - About ¼ of ADHD children engage in serious antisocial behaviour: o Review of 100 studies; 99 show relationship - Most ADHD lead successful, non-criminal lives Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): - Negativistic, defiant, disobedient, hostile behaviour toward authority that persists 6+ months - Rate: 2 – 16% in US - More males before puberty; equal after - Onset gradual and before age 8; number of symptoms increase with age Conduct Disorder (CD): - Repetitive; persistent pattern of misbehaviour violating basic rights of others - US: 1 – 10% of children/youths - Onset ~age 5 - High risk for peer rejection, delinquency, criminality - Childhood onset versus adolescent onset Personality Traits Associated with Criminal Behaviour (1 –12): - 1. Time orientation/inability to delay gratification - 2. Impulsivity - 3. Negative affect - 4. Sensation seeking - 5. Locus of control - 6
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