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The Developmental Pathway.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 103
Jennifer Wong

The Developmental Pathway: - Contains risk factors and protective factors - Majority of teenagers take better pathways that end up with less juvenile offending - Factors may lead kids on positive pathway or negative pathway Social Risk Factors: - Poverty - Association with delinquent peers - Peer rejection - Negative preschool experiences - Low-quality after school care - Low school performance Poverty: - Connected to persistent, violent offending - -> victimization - Relationship is complex - -> poverty associated with other risk factors - People living in poverty are more likely to commit crime and to be victimized - Poverty related to a lot of different conditions (ie discrimination, violence, etc) - Hard to tell what relationship poverty has since a lot of other factors are attached to poverty Poverty Influences Parent Behaviour: - Adds additional stressors - May reduce nurturing and consistent parenting - Children learn behaviour from parents -> likely to repeat behaviour in life Association with Delinquent Peers: - Peers influence social and emotional development - Delinquency predicted by delinquency of friends - Act in groups - Delinquent acts more common in groups than solo Perspectives on Influence of Peers: - Direct result of association with deviant peers - Deviant youths seek similar peers - Deviant youths drawn to deviant peers; amplifies already existing tendencies - “birds of a feather flock together” Peer Rejection: - Peer acceptance important for social/psych development - Dodge & Pette (2003): - -> children rejected for 2+ years - -> 50% vs 9% - 50% developed clinically significant antisocial behavior (rejected) as opposed to the 9% that were not rejected Risk Factors for Peer Rejection: - Low quality parent child relationship - Low quality parent parent relationship - Aggressive - Impulsive and disruptive - Easily angered - Lack social and interpersonal skills - Shy and socially withdrawn - Weak and submissive Negative Preschool Experiences: - Low quality child care - -> indirect relationship: children at risk for poor language, cognitive, social and emotional level - High quality preschool programs - -> help protect at-risk children - Not directly low quality child care, but the results of poor child care that influence negative factors Low Quality After-School Care: - “latch key children” - After-school programs range widely in benefits - Children that are unsupervised after school are at larger risk for delinquency - After school programs are not successful at achieving cognitive skills or academic skills - Some programs may even increase chances of delinquency Negative School Performance: - Strong relationship with delinquency - -> early school failure - -> reading achievement - -> lack of bonding to school - -> truancy - Reading achievement is indirectly related to delinquency Parental and Family Risk Factors: - Single-parent households - Parental styles and practises - Lax parental monitoring - Large family size and sibling relationships - Negative family interaction - Parental criminality and substance abuse Single-Parent Households: - Related to delinquency - Most important is a stable, secure, supportive home environment - Positive effects of parent-child relationship in a 2-parent family are stronger - Single-parent usually means more stress for the parent Parental Practises and Styles: - Parental practises: strategies to affect particular aspect of child - Parental styles: attitudes toward child; emotional climate (eg, gestures, expessions) Disciplinary Techniques: - Hoffman (1977): categorized content, style, consistency - -> power assertion - -> love withdrawal - -> induction - Associated with: - -> moral development (especially induction) - -> delinquency (especially power assertion) Baumrind’s Four Parenting Styles: - Authoritarian (strict rules to be followed at all time, do not question authority, penalties) - Pe
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