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Lecture 4

CRIM 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Diminished Responsibility, Language Disorder, Attachment Theory


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 103
Professor
Jennifer Wong
Lecture
4

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Section 1.
Psychological risk factors for crime
Lack of Attachment
Bol’s attahet theor
o Early infant/caregiver relationship has major impact on future social
relationships
Infant attachment is:
o Secure
Responsive caregivers; become psych healthy adults good relationships,
empathize with others, good self-regulation
o Insecure: anxious/ambivalent not much exploration to new environment
Overbearing and inconsistent parents
As adults desire close relationships but worry
o Insecure: avoidant fear of loss can result in violent actions diminished
capacity for their victims or relationships
Distant parents rarely cry during separation or reunion with parents,
infants never know when and how parents will respond to their needs
Difficulty forming intimate relationships as adults want to have close
relationships but worry about the relationships returning the affection
become more obsessive and preoccupied with relationships especially
spouse or partner
Lack of Empathy characteristic of aggressive and antisocial individuals, predispose to be
more aggressive and violent to others
Affective empathy: e.g., psychopath has cognitive empathy but cannot get affective
empathy
o Concern for others; desire to alleviate (make less severe) distress
o Experience aother’s eotios
Cognitive empathy:
o Ailit to uderstad fro aother’s poit of ie
o Understand aother’s eotios
o Most strongly related to violence and criminal behaviour
Language Deficiencies language helps facilitate problem solving and academic performance,
maintain self-control and self-regulation as well
Increase risk of antisocial behaviour
Brownlie (2004): 5 year-old boys w/ language impairment much more delinquent at age
19
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May have indirect effect on delinquency difficulty to express themselves (hard to be
resolutions of conflict), hard to follow at school, academic and social development
o Peer rejection, teachers, frustration
Intelligence: IQ
Intelligence tests popular because reliable and predictive of academic achievement
Strong genetic component
Average IQ = 100; intellectual deficiency: IQ < 70
Inverse relationship between IQ & delinquency IQ goes up, delinquency goes down
IQ vs. Intelligence
IQ: a specific test
Many argue IQ tests are culturally & socially biased
IQ scores strongly predictive of school performance
IQ is not equivalent to intelligence
o Intelligence = broad, all-encompassing ability, different definition to another
standard
IQ and Crime
Inverse relationship between IQ scores & delinquency
IQ gap 9 14 pts for offenders/ non-offenders
Relationship between delinquency and low IQ is strong does’t ea that lo IQ ust
delinquent/ verbal IQ is strong, maybe unable to transition to adult roles
independent of SES, race
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
2 key behaviours:
o Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (act before thinking, shifts quickly from
one activity to another)
Difficulties staying on task, organizing thoughts, self-regulating behaviour
Symptoms vary widely in severity
To be diagnosed as ADHD:
o Symptoms before age 12; 2+ setting; interfere with functioning
Affects 5% of children and 2.5% of adults in U.S.
2:1 M to F
Both heredity & environmental factors exposal to drugs or tobacco, expose to toxicity
ADHD and Delinquency most common is ADHD with substance abuse
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