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Lecture 8

CRIM 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Substance Abuse, Prescription Drug, Addiction

Course Code
CRIM 103
Jennifer Wong

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Substance Abuse and Crime
Affect millions of people in America
2013 NSDUH: 15.9% of Americans >12 years used illicit drug in past year
Strong link between drug use and crime
o More people in US in jail/prison for drug than any other offense
o Individuals often test positive for drugs when arrested
o Offenders were often under the influence at time of offence
o Some people commit property offences to support a drug habit
o Drug trafficking is related to violent crime
o The relationship between drugs and crime is complex
Drug OD was leading cause of injury death in 202
o For age 25-64, OD caused more deaths than MVAs
CDC (2014): 114 die per day as a result of OD and 6,748 are treated in emergency rooms
*Substance abuse may influence criminal behaviour due to influence of drugs
Or directly triggering thoughts
o Like cocaine causing hallucinations
Juvenile Drug Use
*Drug use in early life is associated with:
o Many serious health problems
o Serious crimes
o Developmental issues
Ontario Student Drug Use & Health survey:
o Survey of 20,272 Ontario students gr. 7-12
Past year drug use:
o 49% alcohol
o 20% binge drank
o 23% cannabis
o 12% prescription pain relievers for recreation
o 8.5% cigarettes
o 10% OTC cough/cold medication
A Brief History of Illicit Drugs
o *There are some legal as of drugging
o Cigarettes
o Many currently illegal drugs were once legitimately used
o For religious, medicinal, recreational purposes, e.g., Freud & cocaine
o *At some point quite a few drugs were used for medicinal purposes like cocaine for depression
o 1914: Harrison Narcotic Act (US)
o Outlawed heroine and cocaine
o Believed to have caused more addicts
o 1919: Volstead (US)
o In Canada this was province-by-province; e.g., BC was enacted in 1917 and repealed in 1921
o Legal =/= Safe
Goldstein’s Tripartite Conceptual Model of Drug-Related Crime
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o 3 main kinds of drug-related crime
o Psychopharmacological Crime
o Individuals become excitable or irrational as a direct result of using drugs
o Systemic Crime
o Drug trafficking & distribution lead to violence or crime
o Economically Compulsive Crime
o Crime committed to support expensive drug addiction
Tolerance & Dependence
o Tolerance
o Progressively decreased responsiveness to a drug
o Physical Dependence
o Changes in body that have occurred after repeated use and require continued administration to avoid
withdrawal symptoms
o Psychological Dependence (PD)
o Primary PD: overwhelming desire to use drug (positive reinforcement)
o Secondary PD: expectation of potential withdrawal effects (negative reinforcement)
4 Categories of Psychoactive Drugs
o *Drugs that change your emotion, perception, consciousness
o Hallucinogens (psychedelics)
o Change in consciousness w/alteration of reality
o Stimulants
o Stimulate CNS
o Opiate narcotics
o Sedative and analgesic effect
o Sedative hypnotics/depressants
o Sedate the CNS and reduce anxiety
o Factors that influence effects
o Dosage, purity, mixing, administration, habituation
o A) Marijuana (cannabis)
Most commonly used illegal substance
OSDUHS (2013) 7% 8th graders, 25% of 10th, 39% of 12 graders
THC potency depends on type of cannabis plant, growing environment, etc.
Physical addiction only at very high doses
Psychological effects are subjective
Becker (1963): 3-stage learning process
o How to inhale; hold in lungs
o Identify and control effects you experience
o Label those effects as pleasant
Marijuana and Crime
Walker (2001): no causal link between use of cannabis & criminal activity
o Other than possession, use, & sale
Marijuana may decrease criminal activity
o A predominant effect of THC is relaxation & decrease in physical activity
o B) LSD (acid)
2013 ODUHS: 1.5% gr. 9-12 students
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