CRIM 104 Lecture Notes - Reality Principle, Albert Reiss, Embezzlement

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 104
Emile Durkheim:
- Durkheim was an “order theorist
- Moral order more fundamental than economic order
- Committed to preserving the existing social system
- Regarded society as “an organism”
- Society as an entity, greater than its parts
Integration and Regulation:
- Integration:
o Social forces of attraction
o Social bonds, collective beliefs
- Regulation:
o Social forces of constraint
o Laws and social structure
Conformity:
- Conformity cannot be taken for granted
- Conformity and social control requires socialization
- Non-conformity can be expected when social controls are ineffective
Origins of Social Control The Chicago School:
- Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay
- Concerned with social disorganization
- Weakening informal controls lead to delinquency
Social Disorganization and Social Control:
- Social disorganization leads to a breakdown in informal social controls
- When informal social controls break down, societies become more inclined to turn to formal
social controls
The Social Context of Control Theory:
- Came after the roaring twenties, the great depression and world war two
- Time of the “American Dream” – stereotypical American family
- TV shows like Leave it to Beaver, Father Knows Best, Lassie
- Civil rights movement
- Anti-war protests
- Rock and roll music
- Beatniks and hippies
- Black power movement
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- Feminist movement
Albert Reiss:
- Did his PhD and taught at University of Chicago
- In 1951, published “Delinquency as the Failure of Personal and Social Controls”
- Talked about how people conform through “acceptance” and/or “submission”
Ivan Nye:
- Attended Michigan State University
- Talked about family-focused social control
- The family could/should generate direct control, internalized control, indirect control
- Direct control = punishment or restraints act as external forces
- Internalized control = individual regulates his/her own behaviour
- Indirect control = identification with and affection for parents and significant others
Containment Theory:
- Form of social control theory developed by Walter Reckless (1967)
- Family and other social bonds control delinquent behaviour
- Inner containment, e.g., self-control, good self-image, ability to tolerate frustration
- Outer containment, e.g., family values, institutional reinforcement , effective supervision
- Internal pushes, e.g., restlessness, impatience and anger
- External pulls, e.g., poverty, unemployment, the media, or delinquent friends
- Inner and outer containments control or contain crime
- Internal pushes and external pulls serve to push/pull individuals towards criminal activity
Greetings From Travis Hirschi:
- Did PhD in sociology
- Acknowledged influence of Durkheim, Albert Reiss, Nye and Reckless
- Said that if individuals had strong social bond with society, they would be less likely to commit
crimes
Social Bond Theory:
- Form of social control theory by Travis Hirschi
- Attachment = ties of affection and respect, with parents, school teachers
- Commitment = getting, good education, learning trade or profession, finding a good job
- Involvement = being involved in school, in recreation, with family
- Belief = shared values its wrong to steal, people should respect the law
Low Self Control:
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Document Summary

Moral order more fundamental than economic order. Committed to preserving the existing social system. Society as an entity, greater than its parts. Integration: social forces of attraction, social bonds, collective beliefs. Regulation: social forces of constraint, laws and social structure. Non-conformity can be expected when social controls are ineffective. Origins of social control the chicago school: Social disorganization leads to a breakdown in informal social controls. When informal social controls break down, societies become more inclined to turn to formal social controls. Time of the american dream stereotypical american family. Tv shows like leave it to beaver, father knows best, lassie. Came after the roaring twenties, the great depression and world war two. Did his phd and taught at university of chicago. In 1951, published delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls . Talked about how people conform through acceptance and/or submission . The family could/should generate direct control, internalized control, indirect control.

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