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Social Control Theory.docx

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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Emile Durkheim: - Durkheim was an “order theorist” - Moral order more fundamental than economic order - Committed to preserving the existing social system - Regarded society as “an organism” - Society as an entity, greater than its parts Integration and Regulation: - Integration: o Social forces of attraction o Social bonds, collective beliefs - Regulation: o Social forces of constraint o Laws and social structure Conformity: - Conformity cannot be taken for granted - Conformity and social control requires socialization - Non-conformity can be expected when social controls are ineffective Origins of Social Control – The Chicago School: - Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay - Concerned with social disorganization - Weakening informal controls lead to delinquency Social Disorganization and Social Control: - Social disorganization leads to a breakdown in informal social controls - When informal social controls break down, societies become more inclined to turn to formal social controls The Social Context of Control Theory: - Came after the roaring twenties, the great depression and world war two - Time of the “American Dream” – stereotypical American family - TV shows like Leave it to Beaver, Father Knows Best, Lassie - Civil rights movement - Anti-war protests - Rock and roll music - Beatniks and hippies - Black power movement - Feminist movement Albert Reiss: - Did his PhD and taught at University of Chicago - In 1951, published “Delinquency as the Failure of Personal and Social Controls” - Talked about how people conform through “acceptance” and/or “submission” Ivan Nye: - Attended Michigan State University - Talked about family-focused social control - The family could/should generate direct control, internalized control, indirect control - Direct control = punishment or restraints act as external forces - Internalized control = individual regulates his/her own behaviour - Indirect control = identification with and affection for parents and significant others Containment Theory: - Form of social control theory developed by Walter Reckless (1967) - Family and other social bonds control delinquent behaviour - Inner containment, e.g., self-control, good self-image, ability to tolerate frustration - Outer containment, e.g., family values, institutional reinforcement , effective supervision - Internal pushes, e.g., restlessness, impatience and anger - External pulls, e.g., poverty, unemployment, the media, or delinquent friends - Inner and outer containments control or contain crime - Internal pushes and external pulls serve to push/pull individuals towards criminal activity Greetings From Travis Hirschi: - Did PhD in sociology - Acknowledged influence of Durkheim, Albert Reiss, Nye and Reckless - Said that if individuals had strong social bond with society, they would be less likely to commit crimes Social Bond Theory: - Form of social control theory by Travis Hirschi - Attachment = ties of affection and respect, with parents, school teachers - Commitment = getting, good education, learning trade or profession, finding a good job - Involvement = being involved in school, in recreation, with family - Belief = shared values – its wrong to steal, people should respect the law Low Self Control: - Low self-control advanced as main cause of crime in Gottfredson and Hirschi’s 1990 book A General Theory of Crime - General theory meant to explain all crime, all of the time, at all ages, under all circumstances - Signs (symptoms) of low self control include impulsivity, short sightedness, inability to delay gratification - Cause of low self control is poor or ineffective child rearing - Once low self-control is instilled, it tends to be highly stable over the life course - Poor or ineffective parenting (usually by parents who lack self-control themselves) = children with low self-control = future deviants and criminals The ID: - Psychological storehouse for our inner “drives” or “instincts” (aggression, sexual desire) - Governed by “the pleasure principle” (hedonism, maximization of pleasure, minimization of pain, immediate gratification) The Ego: - Emerges through confrontation with external environment (reinforcement, punishment, having certain behaviours ignored) - Ego consciously and unconsciously regulates the demands of the ID - Operates in accordance with “the reality principle” – delayed gratification for long term gain The Superego: - Acts from our “conscience”, or moral compass - Emerges from ego through selective reactions to certain behaviours, identification with intimate authority figures - Individual internalizes or adopts rules; develops inhibitions - Depends on good child-rearing – warmth, care, attention, supervision, good behaviour modelling Psychological Maturity: - Ability to delay gratification - Ability to lve/be loved in long-term relationship - Being socially productive Criticisms of Low Self-Contro
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