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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Chronology: - Marx 1818-1883 - Durkheim 1858-1917 - Weber 1864-1920 The Social Context: - For Marx, it was the time of the industrial revolution - Expropriation and/or dispossession through eviction and enclosure - Steam engines, cotton jenny, rolling mills, blast furnaces replacing skilled labour - All resulted in impoverished working class – surplus labour pool - Factories like prisons; workers like prisoners Marx’s Contributions: - Not a sociologist, and didn’t write much about crime - Still most widely cited political philosopher in social sciences as recently as the 1980s - Wrote Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto - Influential in worker’s movements and ideas re: socialism and communism Who Marx Influenced: - Simmel - Bonger - Vold - Turk - Chambliss - Quinney - Platt - Taylor - Walton - Young Dialectical Pairs: - Positive – negative - Attraction – repulsion - Inside – outside - Up – down - Light – dark - Good – evil - God – devil - Slave owners – slaves - Landlords – serfs - Capitalists – workers - Dialectical pairs-polar opposites - Depend upon each other for their existence - Contradictory (opposing) interests - Class struggle leads to change in socioeconomic forms The Historical Materialism Pyramid: - Ideology - Social superstructure - Relations of production - Forces of production - Modes of production Law as a Mystifying Force: - Appearance - Essence - Equitable - Protects/maintains class relations - Due process - Preserves wealth - Protects society - Justice for rich, jail for poor - Justice for all - The Socio-Historical Backdrop: - Durkheim was born in 1858, 10 years after the Parisian revolution of 1848; 12 years before the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 - After the French Revolution of 1789; by 1875, France was going through its third incarnation, as The Third Republic - Time of the industrial revolution, and the rise of socialism and communism Law and the Moral Order: - Moral order more fundamental than economic order - Influence of Saint-Simon, who talked extensively about importance of moral order - For Durkheim, law was reflection of moral beliefs/statements - Moral order or moral consensus would create a unified social order Social Solidarity: - Mechanical Solidarity - Organic Solidarity - Earlier, more simple societies - Later, more complex societies - Rudimentary division of labour - Complex division of labour - Limited differentiation - Extensive specialization - Vengeance/harsh punishments - Law as regulated social defense - Repressive law - Restitutive law Integration and Regulation: - Integration - Regulation - Social forces of attraction - Social forces of constraint - Social bonds, collective beliefs - Laws and social nature Striking a Blow for Sociology (Déjà vu, All Over Again): - Weber was the founder of academic sociology in Germany - Wrote Economy and Society, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, and the Argarian Sociology of Ancient Civilizations - Economy and Society was settled into law The Social Context: - Weber was influenced by Karl Marx, and was familiar with Marx’s thought - Weber witnessed a tremendous growth in the middle classes – something that wasn’t predicted by Marx Weber on Historical Materialism: - Complex relationship between the economic system, law and religion - Ideology conditioned the economy as much as the economy conditioned ideology - Inspiration for writing The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism: - Decline of Catholicism and the rise of Protestantism - Protestantism emphasized work and striving, viewed wealth and success as sign of being blessed Put Her in Reverse: - Ideology - Social superstructure - Relations of production - Forces of production - Modes of production The Rosy Future of Capitalism: - Cartelization vs. competition - Stability in banking and credit - Workers interests more aligned with capitalists Traditional Domination: - Habit from longstanding obedience to rules - Belief in the legitimacy of those holding power or authority - Power and authority are inherited, e.g., kings or aristocracy Charismatic Domination: - Linked with persona qualities of leadership - Belief that leader has extraordinary powers or qualities - Could include religious leaders, saviours, shaman Legal Domination: - Belief that existing laws are fair and rational - Also referred to as rational legal authority - Belief in legitimacy of the laws and those who are enforcing them - Those who create and
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