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Crim 104 Lecture 2.docx

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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Crim 104 Lecture 2 THEORY -What makes a good theory  Good theory is logically constructed (logically sound and internally consistent)  Good theory is based n evidence  Good theory can be empirically validated (i.e through measurement or observation)  Good theory can unify a number of competing or conflicting theories -Problems with measurement  Theory may be good, but we may lack the means to measure or observe  Some theories have been measured only once, or from only one perspective (may appear to have been proven, but not through repeated research) -Types of theories  Metathoeries = grand theories that offer wide concepts  Unit theories = emphasize a particular problem and make testable assertions about the problem. Eg why do certain group of teenagers get in crime? What do they have in common  Macrotheories = are broad, and tend to explain the effects of social structure. Merton social structure  Microtheories= are narrow, and tend to explain the process through which individuals or groups become criminal. Eg gang theory, street theory  Bridging theories attempt to address issues of social structure and the process through which individuals become criminal. -Consensus VS conflict Consensus theory Conflict theory Associated with Emile Durkheim Associated with Karl Marx Society as a functional organism Society rooted in social conflict Norms/expectations based on Norms/expectations not shared, but shared values/interests rather, imposed upon us Laws and social institutions Laws and social institutions designed to regulate and designed t protect interests of those integrate social behaviour with money/power -Chronology  Marx 1818~1883  Durkheim 1858~1917  Weber 1864~1920 ------------------------------------ -Marx's contributions  Not a sociologist, and didn’t write much about crime  Still most widely cited political philosopher in social sciences as recently as the 1980s  Wrote Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto  Influential in worker's movements and ideas re: socialism and communism -Dialectical/historical materialism Slave owners slaves landlords serfs capitalists workers 1. Dialectical pairs-polar opposites 2. Depend upon each other for their existence 3. Contradictory (opposing) interests 4. Class struggle leads to change in socio-economic forms -The historical materialism pyramid Ideology Social superstructure Relations of production Forces of production Mode of production -Basic position of Marxist thought  "capitalism is an exploitative and alienating social order in which inequality is institutionalized by an elite ruling class"  "state serves the interests of the ruling class"  The laws are "mystifying" force, masking the exploitative nature of capitalism -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Emile Durkheim -Striking a blow for sociology  Founded sociology at the Sorbonne in Paris  Wrote The Rules of Sociological Method and Suicide; A study in sociology.  Wrote "Sociology and Social Facts', appended to later editions of the Division of Labour n society.  Instrumental in establishing and contributing to Annee Sociologique -The influence of de Montesquieu (1689 - 1755)  Founder of the sociology of knowledge  Studied social facts, social institutions, social organization, social class and social conditions  Durkheim influenced by this person -The influence of Saint-Simon (1760-1825)  Widely regarded as one of the founders of sociology  One of first to view society as functional mechanism, greater than its component parts  Called for a "human science" introduced the concept of "positivism" (using scientific method to study human phenomena)  Saint-Simon emphasized importance of moral order  Durkheim influenced by this person -Auguste Comte  Coined the term "sociology"  Like Saint-Simon, Comte was concerned with moral order and moral disunity  Was opposed to social criticism, social conflict and social change  Redefined "positivism" as positive philosophy - the opposite of the critical, "negativistic" philosophy of the French Revolution and the Enlightenment.  Influenced Durkheim -The socio-historical backdrop  Durkheim was born in 1858, 10 years after the Parisian revolution of 1848; 12 years before the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71  After the French Revolution of 1789; by 1875, France was going through its third incarnation, as The Third Republic  Time of The Industrial Revolution, and the rise of socialism and communism -Law and the moral order (Durkheim)  Moral order more fundamental than economic order  Influence of Saint-Simon, who talked extensively about importance of moral order  For Durkheim, law was reflection of moral beliefs/sentiments  Moral order or moral consensus would create a unified social order -Social solidarity Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Earlier, more simple societies Later, more complex societies Rudimentary division of labour Complex division of labour Limited differentiation Extensive specialization Vengeance/harsh punishments Law as regulated social defense Repressive law Restitutive law -Integration and regulation Integration Regulation Soc
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