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Criminology (2,197)
CRIM 104 (315)
Lecture

Lecture notes - week 12

6 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 104
Professor
Barry Cartwright

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CHRONOLOGY • Marx 1818­1883 • Durkheim 1858­1917 • Weber 1864­1920 SOCIAL CONTEXT • For Marx, it was time of Industrial Revolution • Expropriation and/ or dispossession through eviction and enclosure • Steam engines, cotton jenny, rolling mills, blast furnaces replacing skilled labor • All resulted in impoverished working class – surplus labor pool • Factories like prisons; workers like prisoners MARX’S CONTRIBUTION • Not sociologist, and didn’t write much about crime • Still most widely cited political philosopher in social sciences as recently as 1980s • Wrote Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto • Influential in worker’s movements and ideas re: socialism and communism WHO MARX INFLUENCED  • Simmel • Bonger • Vold • Turk • Chambliss • Quinney • Platt • Taylor • Walton • Young MICHEAL FOLCAULT DIALECTICAL PAIRS • Positive • Attraction • Inside • Up • Light • Good • God • Negative • Repulsion • Outside • Down • Dark • Evil • The devil DIALECTICAL/ HISTORICAL MATERIALISM • Slave owners – slaves • Landlords – serfs • Capitalists ­ workers 1. Dialectical pairs­polar opposites 2. Depends upon each other for their existence 3. Contradictory (opposing) interests 4. Class struggle leads to change in socio­economic forms HISTORICAL MATERIALISM PYRAMID LAW AS MYSTIFYING FORCE • Appearance ­ Equitable ­ Due process ­ Protects society ­ Justice for all • Essence ­ Protects/ maintains class relations ­ Preserves wealth ­ Justice for rich, jail for poor PREACHING MORALITY • “We are moral beings only to the extent that we are social beings” ­ Book Ethics and the Sociology of Morals SOCIO­HISTORICAL BACKDROP • Durkheim born in 1858, 10 years after Parisian revolution of 1848; 12 years  before Franco­Prussian War of 1870­71 • After French Revolution of 1789; by 1875, France was going through its third  incarnation, as Third Republic • Time of Industrial Revolution, and rise of socialism and communism LAW AND MORAL ORDER • Moral order more fundamental than economic order • Influence of Saint­Simon, who talked extensively about importance of moral  order • For Durkheim, law was reflection of moral beliefs/ sentiments • Moral order or moral consensus would create a unified social order SOCIAL SOLIDARITY • Mechanical solidarity ­ Earlier, more simple societies ­ Rudimentary division of labor ­ Limited differentiation ­ Vengeance/ harsh punishments ­ Repressive law • Organic solidarity ­ Later, more complex societies ­ Complex division of labor ­ Extensive specialization ­ Law as regulation social defense ­ Restitute law INTEGRATION AND REGULATION • Integration ­ Social forces of attraction ­ Social bonds, collective beliefs • Regulation ­ Social forces of restraint ­ Laws and social structure MAX WEBER STRIKING BLOW FOR SOCIOLOGY (DEJA VE, ALL OVER AGAIN) • Weber was founder of academic sociology in Germany • Wrote Economy and Society, the Methodology of Social Sciences, and The  Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilizations • Economy and Society was where he set out his sociology of law SOCIAL CONTEXT • Weber was influenced by Karl Marx, and was familiar with Marx’s thought • Weber witnessed tremendous growth in middle class – something that wasn’t  predicted by Marx WEBER ON HISTORICAL MATERIALISM • Complex relationship between economic system, law and religion • Ideology conditioned economy as much as economy conditioned ideology • Inspiration for writing • The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism PROTESTANT ETHIC AND SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM • Decline of Catholicism and rise of Protestantism • Protestantism emphasized work and striving, viewed wealth and success as sign  of being blessed PUT ‘ER IN REVERSE  ROSE FUTURE OF CAPITALISM • Cartelization vs. competition • Stability in banking and credit • Workers interests more aligned with capitalists THREE MAIN TYPES OF DOMINATION TRADITIONAL DOMINATION • Habit from longstanding obedience to rules • Belief in legitimacy of those holding power of authority • Power and authority are inherited, e.g., kings or aristocracy CHARISMATIC DOMINATION • Linked with personal qualities of leadership • Belief that leader has extraordinary powers or qualities • Could include religious leaders, saviors, shaman LEGAL DOMINATION • Belief that existing laws are fair and rational • Also referred to as rational legal authority • Belief in legitimacy of laws and those who are enforcing them • Those who create and enforce laws are also bound by them • According to Weber, rational legal authority primarily exists in modern Western  society GEORGE SIMMEL • One of the earliest of “conflict” theorists • A contemporary of Durkheim • Saw conf
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