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CRIM 104 (315)
Lecture

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 104
Professor
Barry Cartwright
Semester
Spring

Description
WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? The study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. AN EXPANDED DEFINITION • SOCIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF: • Social relations- way that individuals and groups relate to each other (governed or controlled by law and by the criminal justice system • Social forces- shape our political system, our social system, our laws and our criminal justice system • Social conduct- how we behave or conduct ourselves in our social relations AN EXPANDED DEFINITION cont. * Social conventions- norms or expectations – what people expect we will do, some are informal, some formal. * Social constraints- can be formal or informal. Informal constrains rejection, shunning or exclusion). Formal social constraints (laws, the courts, the police the prison system). * Social institutions- (e.g., the criminal justice system) Largely modern creations, designed to constrain those who do not follow social convention IS SOCIOLOGY REALLY A SCIENCE? Involves a respect for logical clarity in the formulation of theories and also involves disciplined empirical investigation Sound methods to test theories SCIENCE, EMPIRICISM & THEORY *theory based course • Science = theuseoflogical s,stematic methods to produce a body of knowledge • Empiricism = factual observation the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Stimulated by the rise of experimental science, it developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, expounded in particular by John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume. • Theory = explains why things happen; help us make sense out of the facts, through construction of abstract interpretations of empirical situations. THE PROBLEMS WITH SOCIAL “SCIENCE” Humans do not behave the same • Studying humans and social behavior is different than studying atoms, minerals, chemicals or plant life. • Humans may be uncooperative or may consciously alter their behavior when being studied or observed • Human behaviour can be quite complex, so clear-cut cause- effect relationships may be difficult to pin down THE MYTH OF VALUE NEUTRALITY SOCIOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGY • Sociology and criminology are highly interrelated • Many of the ideas in criminology came from the field of sociology • Until recently, criminology was a sub-discipline of sociology and was usually subsumed under the sociology department THE “ROOTS” OF SOCIOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGY • Roots of sociology are much the same as the roots of criminology • Both disciplines are quite neand have their origins in The Enlightenment THE ENLIGHTENMENT or the Age of Reason (Great development of science) • Period from 1689 to 1789 (began with English Revolution, ended with French revolution). • Intellectual movement involving philosophers, political reformers social theorists and religious skeptics THE ENLIGHTENMENT cont. • New focus on critical examination of human life, religious beliefs and society • Greater emphasis on reason and science rationality and empiricism • Time of Newton’s discovery of gravity, Rousseau’s book The Social Contract De Montesquieu (1689-1755) • Regarded as the founder of the sociology of knowledge • Studied social facts, social institutions , different types of societies throughout history • Examined how different types of social organization, social class positions and social conditions affect forms of thought and cultural perspectives (Zeitlin, 2001). SAINT-SIMON (1760-1825) • Also widely regarded as one of the founders of sociology • Impressed by Newton’s law of gravity and the scientific method in general – “the power of reason” • Introduced the concept of “positivism”— the application of scientific principles to the study of human phenomenon • Called for a “human science” that would discover the laws of social development THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY • School of thought that emerged from The Enlightenment or Age of Reason • Not really a “school of criminology;” group of philosophers who tried to reform way deviants or criminals were tr
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