Class Notes (835,669)
Canada (509,325)
Criminology (2,185)
CRIM 104 (315)

Lecture 1.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? The study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. AN EXPANDED DEFINITION • SOCIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF: • Social relations- way that individuals and groups relate to each other (governed or controlled by law and by the criminal justice system • Social forces- shape our political system, our social system, our laws and our criminal justice system • Social conduct- how we behave or conduct ourselves in our social relations AN EXPANDED DEFINITION cont. * Social conventions- norms or expectations – what people expect we will do, some are informal, some formal. * Social constraints- can be formal or informal. Informal constrains rejection, shunning or exclusion). Formal social constraints (laws, the courts, the police the prison system). * Social institutions- (e.g., the criminal justice system) Largely modern creations, designed to constrain those who do not follow social convention IS SOCIOLOGY REALLY A SCIENCE? Involves a respect for logical clarity in the formulation of theories and also involves disciplined empirical investigation Sound methods to test theories SCIENCE, EMPIRICISM & THEORY *theory based course • Science = theuseoflogical s,stematic methods to produce a body of knowledge • Empiricism = factual observation the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Stimulated by the rise of experimental science, it developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, expounded in particular by John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume. • Theory = explains why things happen; help us make sense out of the facts, through construction of abstract interpretations of empirical situations. THE PROBLEMS WITH SOCIAL “SCIENCE” Humans do not behave the same • Studying humans and social behavior is different than studying atoms, minerals, chemicals or plant life. • Humans may be uncooperative or may consciously alter their behavior when being studied or observed • Human behaviour can be quite complex, so clear-cut cause- effect relationships may be difficult to pin down THE MYTH OF VALUE NEUTRALITY SOCIOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGY • Sociology and criminology are highly interrelated • Many of the ideas in criminology came from the field of sociology • Until recently, criminology was a sub-discipline of sociology and was usually subsumed under the sociology department THE “ROOTS” OF SOCIOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGY • Roots of sociology are much the same as the roots of criminology • Both disciplines are quite neand have their origins in The Enlightenment THE ENLIGHTENMENT or the Age of Reason (Great development of science) • Period from 1689 to 1789 (began with English Revolution, ended with French revolution). • Intellectual movement involving philosophers, political reformers social theorists and religious skeptics THE ENLIGHTENMENT cont. • New focus on critical examination of human life, religious beliefs and society • Greater emphasis on reason and science rationality and empiricism • Time of Newton’s discovery of gravity, Rousseau’s book The Social Contract De Montesquieu (1689-1755) • Regarded as the founder of the sociology of knowledge • Studied social facts, social institutions , different types of societies throughout history • Examined how different types of social organization, social class positions and social conditions affect forms of thought and cultural perspectives (Zeitlin, 2001). SAINT-SIMON (1760-1825) • Also widely regarded as one of the founders of sociology • Impressed by Newton’s law of gravity and the scientific method in general – “the power of reason” • Introduced the concept of “positivism”— the application of scientific principles to the study of human phenomenon • Called for a “human science” that would discover the laws of social development THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY • School of thought that emerged from The Enlightenment or Age of Reason • Not really a “school of criminology;” group of philosophers who tried to reform way deviants or criminals were tr
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 104

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.