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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Social Diorganization Part 2 .pdf

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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Social Disorganization Theory Sometimes referred to as environmental criminology ecological criminology or social ecology Examines relationship between people and their environment Foundation for Community Structure and Crime Testing SocialDisorganization Theory and Economic Deprivation and Neighborhood Crime RatesCrime is Patterned Social disorganization theorists and researchers are interested in the spatial distribution of crime Notion that distribution of crime is not random it is patterned Social problems like unemployment poverty and rundown housing are highly correlated with crimeSocially Disorganized Areas Crime is not the only social problem in crimeridden areas Usually have unemployment mental illness drug addiction alcoholism The Good Part of Town Usually characterized by low rates of crime Absence of social problems found in socially disorganized areas Inuence of the Chicago School City of Chicago grew from 4000 residents in 1833 to 2000000 residents in 1910 principally through immigration Led to rapid social changes associated with urbanization immigration and industrialization The Chicago School was rst sociology department in the United States 1892Often called The Ecological School because various of its core members compared growth of Chicago to the natural ecological process of competition Viewed city of Chicago as a social ecology where humans competed for scarce and desirable space Characteristics of Socially Disorganized Areas Population density overcrowding urbanizationPoverty newly arrived immigrants migrants from farms andor Southern United States unemployed or marginally employedRundown housing abandoned buildings and factories Ethnic and cultural heterogeneity diversity of languages religions values and norms High rates of transience residential mobility The Consequence of Social Disorganization Overcrowding poverty transience all contribute to breakdown of informal social control family school religion Ineffective socialization and supervision of children due to dysfunctional families no neighbourhood stabilityResidents unable to solve their own problems achieve community goals Diagramfrom tutorial 3ReEmergence of the Chicago School Tradition Chicago school tradition of studying relationship between crime and ecology reemerged in the 1980s Sampson R 1986 Crime in Cities The Effects of Formal and Informal Social Control In Communities and CrimeTaylor R 1986 Environmental Design Crime and Prevention In Communities and CrimeSampsonGrove 1989 Community Structure and Crime Testing social disorganization theory American journal of sociologyBursikGrasmick 1993 Neighborhoods and cRim The dimensions of effective community control
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