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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - .pdf

5 Pages

Course Code
CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

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The Functionalist ApproachAnomie theories and subculture theories related to structural functionalismPopular sociological perspective form late 1930s into 1960sSociety seen as series of integrated parts each working to ensure the continuation of the organism Starting with SaintSimonSaint Simon emphasized importance of moral order One of rst view society as functional mechanism And then came Auguste Comte Invoked and organism analogy of society Used terms like elements organs and tissues to describe society Even crime serves a function Durkheim said a certain amount of crime was normalfound in all societies Crime helped to deneshape collective consciousness Crime and punishment maintained the societys fundamental values and preserved its moral order Talcott Parsons Started the concept of structural functionalism Preeminent sociological paradigm during 1940s and 1950sThe Structure of Social Action 1937The Social System 1951Parsons four functional imperative Adaptationsociety had to adapt to its environment to obtain certain resources necessary for survivalGoal attainmentsociety had to deneprioritize its goals and then strive to achieve them Integrationsociety had to regulatecoordinate the interrelationships of its subsystemsLatencysociety had to maintain conforming behaviour by resolving strains and motivating individuals to conform The four parts of the social system Function was to maintain society help it to survive and to ensure wellbeing of its membersFamily produces children teaches them fundamental values eg belief in merits of hard work regard for property respect for othersSchools provide basic knowledge and work skills and reinforce fundamental values Religion supports basic values provides spiritual avenue to cope with social and personal problems Economy allows individuals to work earn and spend A happy balance Society social system strive for balance or stability often referred to as equilibrium Watch words are consensus and integration Mertons anomie and deviant behaviourIf society is functional then why do we have problems like social unrest drug addiction dropouts and crimeMerton deliberately distanced himself from Freudian or psychological explanations Merton used term anomie to describe dysfunction between or malintegration of culture and social structure LeggeMesner 2010Mertons manifest and latent functions Manifest functions are hose that society intends and are often set out as formal institutional goals A manifest or intended functions of CJS system is to punish criminals so that they and others will obey the laws Another manifest functions of CJS is to rehabilitate and reintegrate offenders so that they can once again
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