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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Life course theories .pdf

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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Integrated TheoriesMany new criminological theories are integrated theories Bring two or more theories together to create more powerful model Ronal Akers social learning theoryattempts to integrate differential association theory operant conditioning and imitation and modeling behaviourCharles Tittles control balance theoryattempts to integrate control theory deterrence theory and propensity theoryJohn Hagans power control theoryattempts to integrate Marxian conict theory with social control theoryEndtoEnd Models Hirschi says its a waste of time trying to integrate theories because their underlying assumptions are fundamentally incompatible Says the best way to combine two or more theories into a single unied theory is to create an endtoend model Micro process theorymodeling Middle Bridging theoryStructural macro theoryanomie theory Thus Spake Thornberry According to Thornberry the three most prominent sociological explanations of crime and deviance areSocial learning theory 1Social control theory 2A combination of social learning and social control theory3Interactional TheoryThornberry attempts to integrate social control and social learning theoryExamines how casual variables in delinquency have reciprocal effectsSuccessful attachment to parents results in more commitment involvement and belief Weak attachment to parents make child more open to deviant alternatives eg deviant peersDeviant peers likely to weaken attachment to parents Turing Points Form of social control theory developed by Sampson and Laub Social bonds informal social controls vary or change over the life course Social ties in later life eg marriage children a job may offset earlier trajectories into criminal career Trajectories and TransitionsTrajectories refer to life pathways that people are located on and the direction in which their lives are going Transitions refer special life events that may change the trajectories eg marriage or getting a job Terrie Moftt Terrie Moftts 1993 AdolescentLimited and LifeCoursePersistent AntiSocial BehaviourHad PhD in Clinical psychology from USC Professor of Social Behaviour at University of Londons Institute of Psychiatry Adolescent Limited Moftt says there are two distinct agecrime curves for adolescent limited and lifecourse persistent offenders Adolescentlimited typology captures well known upsurge in delinquency during adolescence and dramatic downswing in delinquency as adulthood approaches
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