crim 104 nov 27 week 11.docx

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Week 11 nov 27
GENDER BASED THEORIES
FEMINIST THEORY
Law as an instrument of patriarchy, working to define women‟s role in all social
spheres
Role of gender relations, and now contradiction/ conflicts regarding gender are
reproduced in legal system
Ways in which women are limited by ideology and repressive power
PATRIARCHY
Involves set of social/power relationships in which males control sexuality of
women and expropriate their labour
In criminology, could refer to fact that males are seen as having a biologically
aggressive nature that requires control, while females are seen as being passive
A SOCIO-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
First women’s rights convention held in New York State in 1848 (participants
taking about tyranny of men over women)
Linked to struggle against slavery in the Southern United States (led to American
civil war, and emancipation of slaves)
Effects of Industrial Revolution and the disintegration of the traditional family and
the traditional village economy
WHO’S AFRAID OF VIRGINIA WOOLF? Book, women can be independent
SOME REAL LIFE EXAMPLES
SOCIAL CONTEXT (1960s & 1970s)
- civil rights movements
-anti-war protests
-black power movement
-the feminist movement
AND A GOOD TIME WAS HAD BY ALL…
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SOME EARLIER THEORIES
Until 1960s and 1970s, most theories of female crime centered around the inherent
nature of women (their individual psychological or physiological characteristics)
Did not examine effects of the social structure of the socialization process or
patriarchy and male dominance
CESARE LOMBROSO
Males more advanced than females
published the female offender in 1903
Female criminality innate (inherent) tendency in certain women who had not
developed femininity or moral refinement
CESARE LOMBROSO cont.
Short women with dark hair and dark Skin color were likely to become criminals
Women criminals likely to be more “masculine” than men, and might even be
stronger
W.I. THOMAS
Wrote his doctoral dissertation (“On a Difference in the Metabolism of the
Sexes”) in sociology at the university of Chicago in the late 1880‟s
Wrote Sex in Society (1907) men were destructive of energy, while women stored
energy like plants
Attributed decline in women’s stature in society to lack of motor fitness and loss
of sexual freedom
Men had more sexual energy than women , which caused men to pursue women
for sexual purposes , and women to exchange sexual exchange social favors
financial/support and security
W.I. THOMAS cont.
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Recommended “rehabilitation” and “prevention” for female criminality
- wrote the unadjusted girl (iaz3)
Delinquent women should be “socialized” into being satisfied with their
traditional sexual roles and positions in society
SIGMUND FREUD
Women destined to a lower social status because their anatomy and reporoductive
organs inferior to those of men
- Developed „penis envy‟ if untreated , then were lately u be rebellious and
aggressive
SIGMUND FREUD cont.
Attempting to be like a man led women and become deviant
Proper treatment was to help them adjust to their
- contributed to the thinking of otto Pollack
OTTO POLLACK
- Wrote “the criminality of women” in 1950
Women inherently deceitful because of their anatomy.
- men needed in achieve an erectium in order to fulfill their sexual roles, whereas
women could fake it
OTTO POLLACK cont.
Because women learned to be deceitful they could engage in crimes like
shoplifting or theft from an employer
Women committed many crimes that went undetected , because of their ability to
be deceitful
A RESPONSE TO STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
Emerging interest in feminist studies in sociology a rejection of the structural
functionalist perspective
Structural functionalists saw gender-based division of labour in family as being
complementary and contributing+ social solidarity
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