VICTIMIZATION AND VICTIMS’ RIGHTS
Three main methods for measuring crime
UCR most important—balanced picture
Could be said that the amount of crime in Canada
PROBLEMS WITH STATISTICS
The Central City Phenomenon
POLICINGACTIVITIES Proactive policing—
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
What we know about public opinion comes mostly from GSS
Only 3% of Canadians say crime and violence most important.
Unemployment, economy, taxation, government spending considered more
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS cont.
Police have high approval, despite all complaints we hear
Courts, corrections, and probation have much lower approval ratings CRIME RATES-1962-2007
2008 CRIME RATES IN CANADA-ABRIEF
2003 saw first inc(6%) in crime in 10 years
Decreased by 5% in 2005, 3% in7% in 2007, 5% in 2008
2.2 millcrimes were reported by po(not including drug/other federal
Most common crimes include: theft under $5000, mischief, B&E, assault level 1, vehicle theft, disturbing
Sometimes referred to as murder— intentionally causing
death of another person or intentionally causing bodily
harm where likely outcome is death.
1 degree murder—planned and deliberate (w/ malice &
forethought); includes killing a peace officer; may include
serial murders and mass murders HOMICIDE cont.
2nddegree murder—intentional, unlawful killing of another person, but not
planned or premeditated to same extent as 1 degree murder
Manslaughter—unintentional (unplanned), unlawful killing of another person
(may result from impaired judgment, recklessness, provocation)
Infanticide—when female causes death of her own newborn child under age of
one, due to mental disturbance caused by giving birth
30 YEAR TRENDS IN HOMICIDEAND
30 YEAR TRENDS IN HOMICIDEAND
ATTEMPTED MURDER cont.
Homicide rate reached 36 year low in 2003
Increased by 12% in 2004 and then 4% in 2005
Decreased by 10% in 2006 and then 3% in 2007 Increased by 2% in 2008, but rate still lower than 20 years ago
611 homicides in 2008; 17 more than 2007
WHY DID THE RATE GO UPIN 2008?
+29 victims in BC, + 22 victims in Alberta
Abbotsford-Mission and Vancouver were amongst the top 6 in the country
IS B.C. WORSE?
THE FRONTIER PHENOMENON
High homicide rates in Northern Canada (and to lesser
degree Western Canada) due to ―frontier mentality and high
proportion of males and native Canadians‖ (Reasons, 2008)
Native peoples in Canada and US have amongst the
highest (if not the highest) homicide rates of all ethnic
groups THE FRONTIER PHENOMENONACT II
Robbery rates: BC top 3
Homicide rates: BC top 4
CANADAvs. THE US
Homicide rate actually declining in US
Still more than twice as high as homicide rate in Canada
Americans much more inclined to use handguns to kill
CANADAvs. THE US Part II
Rates for other crimes are quite similar
Some property crimes, like B & E and Motor Vehicle Theft are actually more
prevalent in Canada
"ATALE OFTWO CITIES"
Charles E. Reasons, Professor at Central Washington University
Did law degree at UBC
Has also taught at SFU, Douglas College and Kwantlen VANCOUVERAND SEATTLE
Both are popular tourist destinations, three hours away
from each other, with similar climate and geography
Also similar in size, population, family income, level of
education, average age.
Seattle often below US homicide rate, Vancouver
consistently above Canadian rate.
Unemployment rate twice as high in Vancouver than Seattle (8.3 to 3.6)
White – 70%, 51%
Asian – 13%, 46%
Black 8%, 0.4% SAY ITAIN'T SO
Vancouver has higher firearm/handgun rate than Canadian average.
Over 14 year time period of study by Reasons, 34% of Vancouver homicides
were with firearms, 28% with handguns, and 31% with knives.
Since year 2000, 41% of homicides in Vancouver were committed with
Vancouver now has more drug and gang-related homicides than Seattle.
VIOLENT CRIMES IN CANADA(2008)
Violent crime reached 20 year low in 2007; dropped another 2% in 2008
About 60% fall under least serious category, level 1 assault
Assault (level 1), also known as common assault— no weapon involved, and
victim does not sustain serious injuries (60%)
Assault (level 2)—assault with a weapon or assault causing bodily harm (16%)
Assault (level 3), also known as aggravated assault— the offender wounds,
maims, disfigures, or endangers the life of the complainant victim (~1%)
Robbery rates increased in 2003 for the first time in 7 years
Went down by 7% in 2008 (rate in 2008 was 11% less than 10 years ago) MORE ROBBERY FACTS
In 2008, 57% of robberies did not involved a weapon
If weapon was used, only 15% were firearms.
Fire-arm related robbery rate in 2007 and 2008 lowest since 1977 (maybe due to lack of
access of weapon/ due to firearm laws)
BREAKING & ENTERING-1977-2007
B&E Have been dropping, peak and drop.
Theft $5000 & under - ~52% of property crime
Break-ins – 22%
Motor vehicle theft – 13%
Fraud – 8%
Possession of stolen goods – 3%
Theft over $5000& up – 1%