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CRIM 131 (205)
Lecture 3

CRIM 131 - week 3 Lecture 3.docx

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 131
Professor
Barry Cartwright
Semester
Winter

Description
CRIMINOLOGY 131 VICTIMIZATION AND VICTIMS’ RIGHTS ABRIEF REVIEW  Three main methods for measuring crime  UCR most important—balanced picture  Could be said that the amount of crime in Canada PROBLEMS WITH STATISTICS The Central City Phenomenon POLICINGACTIVITIES  Proactive policing—  Reactive policing— WHAT DO WE KNOW? PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS  What we know about public opinion comes mostly from GSS  Only 3% of Canadians say crime and violence most important.  Unemployment, economy, taxation, government spending considered more serious issues. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS cont.  Police have high approval, despite all complaints we hear  Courts, corrections, and probation have much lower approval ratings CRIME RATES-1962-2007 2008 CRIME RATES IN CANADA-ABRIEF SUMMARY  2003 saw first inc(6%) in crime in 10 years  Decreased by 5% in 2005, 3% in7% in 2007, 5% in 2008  2.2 millcrimes were reported by po(not including drug/other federal offences) Most common crimes include: theft under $5000, mischief, B&E, assault level 1, vehicle theft, disturbing the peace HOMICIDE  Sometimes referred to as murder— intentionally causing death of another person or intentionally causing bodily harm where likely outcome is death.  1 degree murder—planned and deliberate (w/ malice & forethought); includes killing a peace officer; may include serial murders and mass murders HOMICIDE cont.  2nddegree murder—intentional, unlawful killing of another person, but not st planned or premeditated to same extent as 1 degree murder  Manslaughter—unintentional (unplanned), unlawful killing of another person (may result from impaired judgment, recklessness, provocation)  Infanticide—when female causes death of her own newborn child under age of one, due to mental disturbance caused by giving birth 30 YEAR TRENDS IN HOMICIDEAND ATTEMPTED MURDER 30 YEAR TRENDS IN HOMICIDEAND ATTEMPTED MURDER cont.  Homicide rate reached 36 year low in 2003  Increased by 12% in 2004 and then 4% in 2005  Decreased by 10% in 2006 and then 3% in 2007  Increased by 2% in 2008, but rate still lower than 20 years ago 611 homicides in 2008; 17 more than 2007 WHY DID THE RATE GO UPIN 2008? +29 victims in BC, + 22 victims in Alberta Abbotsford-Mission and Vancouver were amongst the top 6 in the country IS B.C. WORSE? THE FRONTIER PHENOMENON  High homicide rates in Northern Canada (and to lesser degree Western Canada) due to ―frontier mentality and high proportion of males and native Canadians‖ (Reasons, 2008)  Native peoples in Canada and US have amongst the highest (if not the highest) homicide rates of all ethnic groups THE FRONTIER PHENOMENONACT II Robbery rates: BC top 3 Homicide rates: BC top 4 CANADAvs. THE US  Homicide rate actually declining in US  Still more than twice as high as homicide rate in Canada  Americans much more inclined to use handguns to kill CANADAvs. THE US Part II  Rates for other crimes are quite similar  Some property crimes, like B & E and Motor Vehicle Theft are actually more prevalent in Canada "ATALE OFTWO CITIES"  Charles E. Reasons, Professor at Central Washington University  Did law degree at UBC  Has also taught at SFU, Douglas College and Kwantlen VANCOUVERAND SEATTLE  Both are popular tourist destinations, three hours away from each other, with similar climate and geography  Also similar in size, population, family income, level of education, average age.  Seattle often below US homicide rate, Vancouver consistently above Canadian rate. VANCOUVERAND SEATTLE Unemployment rate twice as high in Vancouver than Seattle (8.3 to 3.6) ETHNIC/RACIALGROUPS White – 70%, 51% Asian – 13%, 46% Black 8%, 0.4% SAY ITAIN'T SO  Vancouver has higher firearm/handgun rate than Canadian average.  Over 14 year time period of study by Reasons, 34% of Vancouver homicides were with firearms, 28% with handguns, and 31% with knives.  Since year 2000, 41% of homicides in Vancouver were committed with handguns  Vancouver now has more drug and gang-related homicides than Seattle. VIOLENT CRIMES IN CANADA(2008)  Violent crime reached 20 year low in 2007; dropped another 2% in 2008  About 60% fall under least serious category, level 1 assault LEVELS OFASSAULT  Assault (level 1), also known as common assault— no weapon involved, and victim does not sustain serious injuries (60%)  Assault (level 2)—assault with a weapon or assault causing bodily harm (16%)  Assault (level 3), also known as aggravated assault— the offender wounds, maims, disfigures, or endangers the life of the complainant victim (~1%) ROBBERY RATES-1977-2007  Robbery rates increased in 2003 for the first time in 7 years  Went down by 7% in 2008 (rate in 2008 was 11% less than 10 years ago) MORE ROBBERY FACTS  In 2008, 57% of robberies did not involved a weapon  If weapon was used, only 15% were firearms.  Fire-arm related robbery rate in 2007 and 2008 lowest since 1977 (maybe due to lack of access of weapon/ due to firearm laws) BREAKING & ENTERING-1977-2007 B&E Have been dropping, peak and drop. PROPERTY CRIME Theft $5000 & under - ~52% of property crime Break-ins – 22% Motor vehicle theft – 13% Fraud – 8% Possession of stolen goods – 3% Theft over $5000& up – 1% RIS
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