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Lecture 2

CRIM 203 Lecture 2: Crim 203 l2

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CRIM 203
Sarah Yercich

find more resources at Karl Marx and Marxism - Capitalism, Class Conflict, and Crime Emile Durkheim - Industrialization and Crime Where the pie▯es’ fit - Links to historical case analysis Industrialization: Societal context Research was conducted in an effort to: - Construct a rational society - Out of the ruins of a traditional one Sociologists saw themselves providing a rational, scientific analysis of the monumental social changes that were occurring. Karl Marx: 1818 – 1883 Writings in the context of - The industrial revolution (1760- 1840) Tried to explain - Why industrialization occurred - Why the rapid social changes occurred - And make some sense of what was coming next Mar▯’s theories li▯ked e▯o▯o▯i▯ de▯elop▯e▯t to: - Social - Political - And historical change Did not deal with the problem of crime in any significant way Karl Marx ******Principal focus: ******* - The conflict between the material forces of production o “o▯iet▯’s ▯apa▯it▯ to produ▯e: o Material, find more resources at find more resources at o Goods, o And knowledge. - And the social relations of production o Relationship to & distribution of goods Industrial revolution - Massive social changes o Inc. social relations of productions Shift: feudalism -> to capitalism - Material forces of production would develop - Societal relations would remain relatively fixed o Become a hindrance to development o Leading to socialism replacing capitalism - Contradiction of capitalism o Two conflicting groups  The powerful -> becomes smaller and richer  Bourgeois  The powerless -> keeps getting larger and poorer  Supply of labour exceeds demand for labour o Referred to as proletariats - Cycles of over- production and depression - Leads to inevitable restructuring - Feudalism -> Capitalism -> Socialism Crime and Law Not a criminologist 2 passages in his work addressed crime: - 1) Essential to human nature that people are: o Productive in life and work o Through industrialization and capitalism  Creatio▯ of ▯e▯ ▯lass: Lu▯pe▯proletariat or ▯de▯oralized people▯  Unproductive and demoralized o Subject to vices and crime - 2) Law based on conflict v. consensus Crime is: - concentrated in the lower classes - Law criminalizes the greed of the poor - Allows legal opportunities for the rich to pursue their selfish desires - Powerful = law makers - Powerless = law breakers o The ▯Pri▯iti▯e Re▯ellio▯ Thesis▯ find more resources at find more resources at  Unconscious rebellions against the legal structure Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - A natural and inevitable human condition - Not associated with crime - Unless there is also a breakdown of social norms Breakdo▯▯ of so▯ial ▯or▯s a▯d asso▯iated ▯hu▯ger▯: - Anomie o Normlessness o The breakdown of values - Anomie occurs: o Rapid social changes and modernization o His theories were a reaction to the classical assumptions that humans were free and rational in a contractual society Division of labour in society All societies are in the process of the development from: - The ▯ore pri▯iti▯e ▯▯e▯ha▯i▯al▯ for▯ of so▯iet▯ o Solidarity an
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