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CRIM 241 (40)

Crim 241 Notes week 1.docx

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CRIM 241
Melissa Roberts

Criminology 241 Notes Thinking about corrections -regardless of your personal correctional philosophy, everyone should care -enormous tax expenditure -conviction doe not equal prison -remand, probation, etc -your neighbourhood -they will be released, and they may go to your community -prisons=out of sight, out of mind -unless you work in one, or go to one, you will probably never see the inside -the average citizen doesn’t know a lot about prisons -vested interest in the system -important to take notice because the system will dictate how they act when they get out Looking at Corrections -subsystem of the criminal justice system -a philosophy -how we respond to and punish offenders -a range programs and services Who and What of Corrections -who -non-carceral -serving a sentence not in prison -carceral -serving a sentence in prison -what -complicated -includes a variety of components The Road to Corrections -how does an individual become part of the correctional system? -crime funnel -offence -report to police -investigation -trial -conviction -sentencing -correctional system -the csc is at the very bottom of the crime funnel + Defining Corrections -the structure, policy, programs that are delivered by government, non-profit agencies and organizations and members of the general public to sanction, punish, treat, and supervise, in the community and in correctional institutions, persons convicted of criminal offences -how we respond to crime Challenges for the CCS -providing programs/services for offenders, often for length periods of time -serving a diverse, marginal population -most of our population is marginalized in some way -changing offender profile -more offenders with higher need: physical and mental health issues -pursuing conflicting goals -walking the line of being an institution of punishment and rehabilitation -absence of a knowledge base -research not being used properly -plague of disinformation -media is the main source -tense relationship with the public -out of sight out of mind -multicultural nature of Canada -how do you create a sympathetic system for a variety of cultural perspectives Trends in Corrections -Americanization of Canadian Corrections -Increasing Accountability (Rule of Law and Justice) -Focusing on offender risk/needs and risk management -creating alternatives to incarceration -developing policies and programs for female offenders -expanding Aboriginal corrections Legislation Governing Corrections -The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) -changed our justice system -how the police reacted to offenders and carry out investigations -how the csc treats offenders -the Constitution Act (1867) -federal government creates criminal law -provincial government administrates criminal law -The Canadian Criminal Code -lists crimes and procedures for prosecution -The Corrections and Conditional Release Act -federal statute governing everything to do with corrections -provincial legislation -in respect to provincial prisons -international agreements and conventions -anti-torture agreement -individual transfer agreements between countries Splitting Correctional Jurisdiction ***** -a unique feature of the CSC is the 2 year rule -theories -federal government wanted to maintain control of the cjs -federal government was the only government able to maintain prisons for a lengthy period of time -2 years or more=federal -lower turnover -more stable -2 years less a day=provincial -high turnover -incredibly chaotic due to shorter sentences -no time to do anything with the prisoners The Federal System of Corrections -the correctional service of Canada (CSC) -under the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada -has 5 regions -Atlantic region -Quebec -Ontario -Prairies -Pacific and Territories -the National Parole Board (NPB) or t
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