Class Notes (809,630)
Canada (493,757)
Criminology (2,102)
CRIM 241 (40)
Lecture 2

Crim 241 Notes week 2 jan 23.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
CRIM 241
Melissa Roberts

January 23 Lecture Notes Correctional Change -takes place when one or more of the following occurs: -severity of punishment changes -punishment becomes less/more severe -explanations of criminal changes -Ex. Possessed by the devil, medical model, social model etc -based on the current research -new structural arrangements -building and technological changes -number or proportion of offenders involved changes Michel Foucault -1979 book “Discipline and Punish: The birth of the Prison” -prisons were built to improve punishment rather than reduce it -2 stories -1: prisoner is shamed and tortured publicly in the middle ages Vs. -2: regimented schedule of imprisonment -historically punishments were public and very open -now, our justice system largely occurs in private -unless were clued in, we largely have no idea of what actually happens -if deterrence is the goal, then public torture would work better than some private prison -we’ve moved away from the punishment of the body to punishment of the mind -we strip away anything that makes a person human -we bore them to madness, they become incapable of readjusting to life outside -purpose of prisons is to maintain order today Michael Ignatieff -1978 book “A just measure of pain” -looks back to the industrial revolution -people were flooding into cities to work -with that came growing social disorder -looks at how we punished prior to the industrial revolution and how we did after -our response to offending changed with the industrial revolution -isolation, punishment, and penitence would reform people Historical Developments in response to crime -increasing centralization of the response to crime/criminals -helped solidify the power of the government/monarch -prior to this centralization we didn’t see lawyers and professionals -classification of criminals through “scientific knowledge” -construction of prisons/asylums -reduced physical punishment, increased focus on the mind -prior to the government taking control -communities had a lot of say on what went on Perspective on Punishment and Corrections -many competing perspectives -3 main perspectives -conservative (classical) -hard on crime response -offenders are people who made a rational decision -offenders have no rights -liberal (positivist) -paramount is the protection of society -rights for offenders -medicalization of crime -radical (Marxist) -conflict between rich and poor -works for the rich and punishes the poor -pages 47-29 copy of the chart Classical School -Beccaria and Bentham (1700s) -free will and rational choices and responsibility -no external factors influencing someone’s decisions -goal is deterrence, not revenge -hedonism -pain vs. pleasure -cost benefit analysis -punishment must be effective, certain, and must fit the crime Positive School -Lombroso, Ferri, and Garafalo (1800s) -biological, psychological, physiological and sociological -scientific method to study -offenders are different from “us” -focus on individual treatment Evolution of Punishment -The British Legacy: -personal retaliation and blood feuds -before middle ages, the only thing that was done was punishment -corporal punishment -exile -fines -this was a brutal time -no real use of prisons until about the 1500s -only really used to hold someone from escaping -awaiting death -1700s led to industrialization -courts resorted to death penalty -Bloody Code (350+ offences punishable by death)-1780 -banishment (discontinued in 1875) -Americas -Australia -hulk (floating prisons) -Age of Enlightenment -Beccarria, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Bentham -shift from corporal punishment to incarceration -time where people were criticizing the government and monarchy -reaction to arbitrary and corrupt cjs -spirit of humanitarianism -people concerned about their rights -freewill, rationality, and the benefits of deterrence -Beccaria (1764) -talked about how the gravity of offence should be measured against the severity of punishment -certainty of punishment was the most important principle -Bentham -hedonistic principles -as a result, incarcerations increased -new difficulties/controversies -John Howard and Elizabeth Fry (Prison reform in 18 and 19 centuries) Punishment in Canada -followed closely the English example -harsh -public punishments -pillory and stocks (shaming and humiliation) -death penalty -branding (thieves) -banishment (put in boats, set adrift) -transportation -relocation to another area -workhouses -put to work doing labour -local jails Penitentiaries -late 1700s in the USA -Pennsylvania system -separate and silent -Auburn system -work and eat together at day, separate cells at night, strict silence and no gesturing -Canadian system is modelled after this Canadian Penitentiary -between 1830 and 1867: most important in Canadian corrections -1835 Kingston Penitentiary in Ontario opens -reformatory -people would be tur
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 241

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.