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crim 251 sept 12.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 251
Kash Heed

September 12 Lecture Notes History of Policing in North America -laws were enforced by the community -1st police force in Quebec in mid 1600s -some type of formalized/organized policing in Canada -Peel’s 9 principles -was head of the London Met -created 9 principles for organized policing -refer to book for all 9 principles -no organized police force in BC until 1858 History 4 Eras -political era/reform period -early 1800s-1900s -the Canadian system is built on the British system -police officers were untrained -hired imposing white men and no real recruiting process -improperly equipped and poor procedures -few communication techniques whistles, call-boxes etc -poorly paid and rife with corruption -lots of political influence -high crime rate -professional era/revolutionary period -early 1960-1980s -Volmer forefather of the revolutionary period -recruitment process for hiring police officers, skills required, background checks -numbers of police officers almost tripled from the political era -hire wages and got rid of as much corruption as possible -formal training given to police officers, sent to academies -trained in the use of firearms and force -policies and procedures added, standardized uniforms -technology was more advanced, sirens, radios -forensices introduced, speciailized areas of policing ex. ERT, dog teams, lab work -statistics gathered, 911 system introduced, minorities and women introduced, education background required, merit based advancement -intent of this era was to move the police into a centralized, organized, defined entity -police we’re overwhelmed by the amount of useless calls coming in and unable to meet the demands of the community leading to the creation of police priorities -very expensive era -community policing/evolutionary period -mid 1980s -Herman Goldstein talked about problem-oriented policing -some police organizations tried a shift to community policing -listened to community concerns -added storefront operations, foot+bike patrols, liaison officers, kids programs -started to hire police officers with post-secondary education -CP had no major success in dropping crime rates, not all organizations fully embraced this system -Intel-led/CompStat era -came into North America mid-late 1990s -based on the New York model by Bill Bratton -violent crime and homicide rates down dr
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