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Crim 300W sept 24.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Charmaine Perkins

September 24 Lecture Notes Translink and Fare evasion -5-9 million in lost revenue -new legislation is meant to deter fare evaders Critics -costs to build fare gates: 90-100 million -support for new card system -issue: politics and public perception Theory-policy relationship -theory informs policy: theory without policy has limited uses -theory can be used to justify or critique and improve policy -theory can also emerge from policy/practice if it works to deter offenders Interalationships -theory, research, practice, and policy are all interrelated Other Influential Factors -role of politics/socio-political context/climate -budgets/funding-feasibility (costs-benefits) -role of media: coverage -role of public sentiment/sensibilities -role of experts/academics Key themes/concepts of the classical school -crime=result of free will/rationality -humans are self-interested/hedonistic -calculation of the costs-benefits of crime -costs of crime=punishment (deterence) -punishment must be seen to be a likely outcome: swift, certain, and severe -crime-punishment nexus -punishment is proportional Classical School -associated with penology/legal criminology -punishment as deterrence: proportionality vs. excessive punishment/torture -deterrence: general and specific -general: deterrence for all of us -specific: deterrence for the individual offender Deterrence Theory -Stafford and Warr: reconceptualization of deterrence (perception of the individual) -4 types of deterrence -personal experience with punishment -meant to deter from happening again -personal experience with punishment avoidance -innovation, learning how to evade the law -vicarious experience with punishment -vicarious experience with punishment avoidance Drunk Driving laws -experiential effect: previous experiences influence expectation re: the chances of being caught and penalties (p.97) -EX. Drunk driving perceptions differ between someone who has never driven drunk vs. those caught and who continue to reoffend -chances of being caught are low re: how many times one gets away with it -theory-policy nexus: -are severe penalties working? -hypothesis: -middle to upper-level individuals are more easily deterred because they have more to lose -costs of crime, status and shame -question: how effective is the law based on deterrence?-what do we know? Other Factors: informal deterrence -sanctions that are non-legal/not official -EX. Social sanctions, shame/remorse, disapproval from those who we care about: employers/co-workers, family, peers, etc -Research: informal sanctions inhibit crime more so than formal sanctions -Caveat: older individuals and those who have more to lose are more likelyto be concerned about shame, loss of reputation, etc New Classical School -borrowed from economics: expected utility model-decisions made under uncertain conditions -rational choice theory: Clarke and Cornish mid-to late 80s -crime is chosen because of its benefits -role o
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