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CRIM 300W (51)
Jay H (14)

Week 9 Lecture - Chicago School

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Jay H

SECTION VI THE CHICAGO SCHOOL AND CULTURE/SUB-CULTURAL THEORIES OF CRIME School of Ecology/Chicago School  Known as o Ecological perspective o Theory of social disorganization  Valid and generalizable groups of theories o Many propositions can be applied to cities around the world  Growing cities  Cities with significant amounts of social disorganization  Your environment affects how you behave  Epitome of the scientific method o Used theory development  Strived for balance between theory testing and analysis o Involved  Theory testing  Theory refinement o Developed new theories  Up until Chicago School, past research has small samples, really no theory Chicago in late 1800’s/early 1900’s  Fastest growing city in US history  No formal social agencies to deal with social problems o No social workers o Garbage collectors o Police officers  Communities solved their own problems o No reliance on government  Saw an influx of all sorts of immigrants o Multitude of new cultures coming in very quickly o Those groups came together and formed their own rules, cultures o Everyone took care of their on problem  70% of Chicago citizens at that time were foreign born o Citizens had to organize themselves o Many didn’t speak similar language(s)  Chaos in the city o Complete breakdown of control o Violence/serious crime common o Youth gangs became common  Chicago was a “lab” for sociologists  Results o Chicago became the birth place of modern sociology and criminology o Necessity  Address own social problems  New models of human behavior began to emerge Ecological Principles  Robert Park o Human behavior followed basic principles of ecology o Applied concept of symbiosis  The process of how plants and animals react with their environment  People are better working together as a whole o Concept of natural areas  All cities would contain “natural areas”  Natural areas – geographic areas that are identifiably different from other areas (unique identity)  Often relatively ethnically homogenous  Surrey – East Indians  Richmond - Asians  North Vancouver – Persians  West Vancouver – old money people  Collectively contribute to makeup of whole city o Concept of invasion  Groups invade previously occupied areas  Response Is either to relocate or die off  Big cities  Results in urban sprawl o Continues to expand, suburbs become own cities o Consequences of invasion  Breakdown of informal social controls (neighbourhood networks, family ties, etc)  Psychological indifferences towards neighbourhood  Don’t care what happens in the neighbourhood as long as it didn’t affect me  Difficult to establish bonds  People who can afford to move out do  Those who can’t wait until they can afford and then move out  Refinement of Park’s Theory  Burgess –Concentric Circles o Added complimentary perspective o Cities were not only growing on the edges o Inner city was growing o Puts pressure on adjacent zones o Specified 5 zones  Zone 1  Business district  Large businesses, banking, government buildings etc  Zone 2  Factory zone  Zone in transition  From residential to industrial  Area most vulnerable to Park’s concept o Invasion  Immigrants move into zone 2, housing is cheaper  People may or may not use drugs  anyone with problematic lifestyle and can’t afford to live elsewhere live in here o ie. personality disorders, alcohol problems, etc  Zone 3  Working class zones  Modest home and apartment buildings  Mostly blue-collar families
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