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Lecture 5

Week 5 Textbook - Early Positive School

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Jay H

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EARLY POSITIVE SCHOOL PERSPECTIVES OF CRIMINALITY Introduction  These perspectives focused on that certain individuals/groups tend to offend more than others o EUGENICS  inferior individuals should be controlled or eliminated, control of reproduction  Early to mid 1800s – establish a framework to distinguish superior and inferior individuals o Craniometry – brain & skull size = superiority/inferiority  Thought size of skull = size of brain  Measure volume of brain, circumferences of skull, pour seeds/buckshot/ball bearings into skulls to measure volume  White, Western European = superior  Front portion of brain larger = superior; back portion of brain large = inferior  Craniometrists changed belief and said  convoluted or complex structure of brain +  fissures and gyrus = superior brain  Lack of validity  Now = large brain = score higher on intelligence tests o Phrenology – determine human dispositions based on distinctions  Assumed size of skull = size of brain  Bump or abnormality of skull = abnormality of brain  Certain parts of brain is responsible to certain tasks  Phrenology = area above left ear  destructiveness  Now = area above left ear (left temporal)  trauma  Correct about certain areas of brain govern operation of different physical activities but bumps on skull meant nothing o Physiognomy – study of facial and other bodily aspects to indicate developmental problems  Focused on compare/contrast different racial groups to prove superiority/inferiority  Darwin – The Origins of Species (late 1800s) o Evolution of human species, adaptations preferred by natural selection o Falsely led to believe certain groups are superior/inferior Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminal  1876 – The Criminal Man 1 o Outlined a theory of crime combining craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy  Believed certain people are atavistic, likely born to commit crime o Atavism – person/feature of individual is a throwback to an earlier stage of evolutionary development o Serious criminals = lower forms of humanity  “Born criminals” = target in addressing crime  Societies can identify born criminals by their stigmata o Stigmata = physical manifestations of atavism of an individual, features that indicate a prior evolutionary stage of development  Lombroso’s List of Stigmata o 5+ stigmata = atavism & born criminal o Consisted of facial and bodily features that deviated from the norm  Ex) small/large noses, ears, eyes, jaw, etc.  Anything outside the bell curve o Extra-physiological features as well  Tattoos, family history of epilepsy, disorders o Incorporates core principles in his theory  Idea criminals are biological throwbacks in evolution  Importance of stigmata o Claimed he could associated stigmata with certain types of criminals  Lombroso as Father of Criminology & Father of Positive School o Model supported Western world’s view of slavery, deportation o First to gain prominence in identifying factors outside of free will or free choice o Determinism = assumption that most human behavior is determined by factors beyond free will  Do not logically think through costs and benefits of a situation o Attributes behavior on biological, psychological, sociological variables o When people make important decisions, it is usually not free will that helps us decide, but is almost determined by the environment o When humans are exposed to certain environments, we will act in a predictable way o Deterministic factors = biological makeup of an individual  Lombroso’s Policy Implication o Lombroso & his students called to testify using judgements of stigmata to determine guilt or innocence o Identifying young children with observed stigmata, indicates high risk of developmental problems  Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) 2  Not normal head  Low-set ears st nd circumference  Large gap between 1 & 2 tow  Fine ‘electric’ hair  No ear lobes  1+ hair whorl th  Curved 5 finger  Droopy eyelids  3 toe bigger than 2 tow  Hypertelorism  Asymmetrical ears (orbital)  Furrowed tongue  Malformed ears  Simian crease o Lombroso’s model of stigmata in predicting antisocial behavior used today The IQ Testing Era  Before Binet – IQ =  Alfred Binet – IQ (intelligence quotient) testing o Used to identify youths doing poorly at school o Stated that IQ could be changed  H.H Goddard – twisted Binet’s test for purposes of deporting, incapacitating, sterilizing low IQ individuals o Examined immigrants coming into the US o Proposed that IQ was static/innate and cannot be changed o Assumed intelligence was passed from generation to generation, inherited o Feeblemindedness – low IQ  Morons – biggest threat  Imbeciles  Idiots – lowest intelligence group o Morons is smart enough to slip through the cracks and reproduce o Felt woman are better at distinguishing the feebleminded by sight o Realized his recommendations were not accurate  Tested on US military  Found many recruits to fall into the feebleminded category o Lowered mental age criterion from 12 to 8 o Later on, admitted that intelligence could be improved/changed o US government continued to sterilize people based on IQ scores of their parents  Travis Hirschi & Michael Hindelang o Examined effect of intelligence on delinquency and criminality among individuals o Showed IQ of delinquents or criminals about 10 points lower than non-criminals  Certain studies show that have certain types of intelligence are more important o Low verbal IQ = predicting delinquent and criminal behavior 3 Body Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping  William Sheldon  Somatotyping = development of certain body types and temperaments or personalities o Development of certain tissue layers in the embryonic and fetal stages  All embryos must develop 3 distinct tissue layers o Endoderm = inner layer of tissues, internal organs o Mesoderm – muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons o Ectoderm – outer layer of tissue, including skin, capillaries, nervous system  Proposed certain individuals tend to emphasize certain tissue layers o Focus on endoderm development = endomorphic o Emphasis on middle layer, athletic, muscular build = mesomorphic o Emphasis on outer layer, thin = ectomorphic  Each body type measured on a scale of 1 – 7, 7 = highest score o Typical somatotype is 3-6-2  Little lower than average in endomorphy  High on mesomorphy  Relatively low on ectomorphy o 3-6-2 person likely can
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