Class Notes (809,279)
Canada (493,607)
Criminology (2,101)
CRIM 300W (51)
Jay H (14)
Lecture 3

Week 3 Lecture - Pre-Classical and Classical School

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
Jay H

PRE-CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY AND CLASSICAL THEORIES OF CRIME History of Pre-Classical Theories  Historically crime was caused by supernatural/religious factors o Crime caused by – forces of evil, devil, thunderstorms, full moon  Notion remains today o Catholic church offers course on exorcisms o Academics still use term evil o True crime books evil  Types of punishments for evil offenders o Beheadings, tortured, burned, stoned, quartered  Understanding of crime as supernatural continued n mid 1600’s The Age of Enlightenment  Thomas Hobbs – Leviathan (1651) o Individuals are  Constantly state of fear of everyone else  At war with one another o However, individuals are RATIONAL  To reduce fear of everyone else  Rationally organize into groups  Fear and aggression turns individuals – groups (nations) o Fear needed conformity to rules o Fear important factor  Caused formation of groups  Division of labour, finding mates, providing protection  Also caused conformity o Few rights during this period  No criminal justice rights  No land rights  No rights to means of production  <1% of people controlled land and agriculture o Until people had respect never fully buy in to authority  Radical ideas produced during this time o Human beings are rational being who choose destiny by creating a society o Societies should create rules of conduct o Citizens must determine consequences for rule breaking o Government has the authority and duty of punishing rule breakers 1  Government protection in exchange for abiding by rules o Social Contract – people should have a say in government  Formation of democracy o People had say in government and CJS o Emphasized fairness in sentencing/punishing  Most important concept produced during Enlightenment o Human beings are rational o Consider the consequences of their actions before acting o Have free will  Freely chose behavior – criminal behavior  We whose our destiny Classical School of Criminology  Foundation o Enlightenment philosophers o Concepts of free will, social contract  Classical School of Criminology o Origins of academic study of crime  Father of modern criminology o Caesar Beccaria o Wrote – On Crimes and Punishments o Introduced the concept of utilitarianism – greatest good for greatest number Beccaria’s Reforms and Ideas  Rid justice system of arbitrary punishments o Legislatures defines crime and punishments o True measure crime – harm done to society  No specific individuals – eg. King  Look at crime at how it impacts society as a whole o Specific punishments for specific crimes  No secret accusations o Defendants confronts and cross examine witnesses  Torture should not be used against defendants  Defendants should be tried by peers, not judges  Make justice system more pubic and better understood o If people know the consequences won’t commit crimes  Punishment must be public o Citizens right to know how justice system works o Taken out of the shadows and demystified o Prevent crime
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 300W

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.