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CRIM 300W (51)
Jay H (14)
Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture - Early Positive School

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Jay H

EARLY POSITIVIST SCHOOL Introduction  Deterrence didn’t explain crime  Novel idea – certain individuals or groups are “inferior” o At very least controlled o Likely be eliminated  Idea know as eugenics o Improve the human race o Control reproduction  Bad behavior very subjective  Mid 1800\s o Steps taken to identify inferior people o Same period of slavery in US o Likely related to increase and justification for slavery  Craniometry o Believe that skull perfectly conformed to brain o Size of skull = size of brain o Live subjects – measured circumference of skull o Dead subjects – measured volume, circumference, weight of skull o White, Western European descent had larger skulls o K.F. Gauss  Early practitioner  Died  Brain was smaller than average  Craniometry – no evidence o Scientists not willing to give up ideas of individuals and inferiority  Phrenology o Still sought to support assumptions of eugenics o Human dispositions can be determined from distinctions (ie. bumps) o Believed to conform to the brain o Specific sections = specific personality trait  Right in some ways  Wrong in others  Phrenology – very little empirical evidence o Scientists not willing to give up ideas of individual and inferiority  Getting a “little’ racist here now o Physiognomy 1  Occurred around same time as Darwin’s theory  Facial and body features indicate developmental problems  Set the stage for Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)  Considered Father of Positive Criminology  The Criminal Man (1876)  Widely considered the first attempt at scientific criminological theory o Although based on Darwin o Significantly influenced  Craniometry  Phrenology  Physiognomy Lombroso’s Theory of Crime  Certain groups and individuals were atavistic  Atavism o Throwback to earlier stage of evolutionary development o These humans devolve rather than evolve  Identified “type” of criminals  Commit crime due to external factors 1. Criminaloids  Those committing minor offences 2. Mentally ill  Suffer from mental illness  Commit serious crime 3. Born criminal  Chronic offenders  Less evolved Born Criminals  Born criminals o Identified early by stigmata  Stigmata o Unusually large or small facial features  Anything outside the bell curve o Tattoos o Family history of criminal behavior o Illnesses (ie. epilepsy) 2 Determinism/Positivism  Lombroso greatly influenced criminology o Considered father of positivist school o Applied the concept of determinism criminology o Challenged the notion of free will o Criminal behavior determined by factors other than free will o Open the door to psychology, sociology, biology The IQ Testing Era  Developed by Alfred Binet in France o Created IQ test to identify youth who were not performing well in school o IQ was not static o Could be changed o Changed significantly over the years H.H Goddard  Adapted original structure of Binet’s IQ test o Used to test immigrants coming into US o IQ was innate and static (unchangeable) o Heritable  Passed from generation to generation o Labeled low IQ as feeblemindedness  Significantly lower IQ  Never clearly defined  Specified certain levels of feeblemindedness o Morons – low intelligence o Imbeciles – even lower intelligence o Idiots – lowest intelligence group  Biggest threat to humanity was morons  Identified feeblemindedness o Port of entry – Ellis Island o Low intelligence – deported o Extremely high levels of deportation o Advocate – sterilization to stop morons from reproducing o Later believed that intelligence could be increased Sheldon’s Body Type Theory  Theory of somatotyping 3 o Certain body types – different temperaments/personalities o During embryonic and fetal development, certain tissue layers are formed o Largely hereditary  Embryos developed three types of tissue layers o Endoderm – inner layer of tissue  Includes internal organs (eg. Stomach, large intestines) o Mesoderm – middle layer  Includes muscle bone, ligaments, tendon o Ectoderm – outer layer of tissue  Includes skin, nervous system  Certain types of individuals emphasize tissue later to others o Which in turn associated with inherited temperaments  Created 3 somatotypes o Endomorph  Physical trait:  Soft body  Undeveloped muscles  Round shape  Personality traits:  Loves food  Tolerant, evenness of emotions  Relaxed mood o Mesomorphs  Most likely to commit crimes  Physical trait:  Hard muscular body  Rectangular shape AGE  Upright posture  Personality trait:  Desire for power  Dominant
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