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Lecture 8

CRIM 316 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Serial Killer, Modus Operandi, Truck System


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard
Lecture
8

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Week 8, Lecture 8 Oct 25 Sexual Violence against Marginalized Victim
Marginalized individuals
o Marginalized individuals are those who are not a part of the dominant group in society, who face numerous
severe social problems, and whose situations are highly unstable and crisis-prone due to a variety of factors,
including societal disinvestment (Tusher & Cook, 2010)
o Different types of marginalized group
Very little research
o Difficulty in gaining data
Victim data is often conducted in help centres
Offender data is difficult, as the act or service are often completed in secrecy
o Social stigmatization of their labels
The concept of the less dead remains (Quinet, 2011)
o Current research is primarily on sex trade workers
o We need to incorporate the offender to assist in public policy (Monto, 2004)
Bill C-16
Where does the victimization start?
o Childhood sexual abuse
60% of street workers have been sexually exploited in their childhood
70% of these women said that the sexual abuse had a definite impact on their decision to sell sex
o Family substance use
Often facilitates the violence
Majority of sex trade workers/homeless are NOT addicts prior to leaving home
o Runaways
Child sexual abuse mediated by runaway behavior
o Lack of life skills
No work skills, little education
o When do they start
70% say that started selling sex in their teen years starting at around age 13 (average 16)
Violence
o Marginalized individuals are among the most highly victimized members of society
o Homeless: mental illness
o Sex trade workers: working environment
o Who do you think had higher rates of violence?
Sexual violence
Answer
o Rates are the EXACT same
Prostitutes: 82% have experienced a violent attack & 37% have experienced a sexual assault
Homeless: 85% have been a victim of violence during their homeless period a& 35% have reported
sexual victimization while on street
Prostitute homicide
o Homicide rates are going down, how when a serial homicide occurs (3+), there is an increasing likelihood
that the victim will be a prostitute
Overall, victimization rates have gone from 16% to 69% from 1970s to the 2000s
o Most offenders do not specialize in prostitute murders only
o Homicide is the leading cause of death of prostitute women ABOVE drug-related death
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o Homicide rates for female prostitutes was 18 times higher than women of the same age and race
o Motivation: perception that the victim had lied, cheated, insulted, or hurried the client central to the
escalation toward homicide
Go into service without intention to kill but sometime that happens during the process leads to
murder
But these are all still common factors even with those with the intention to kill, that lead to
escalation to homicide
Indoor vs. outdoor prostitution
o Ongoing debate Who faces more violence?
o Indoor: escort services, exotic dancing, private dancing, personal residence, brothels, peep shows &
massage parlous
o Outdoor: street, survival sex, drug house, truck shops, and hotels
o Raphael & Shapiro (2004) found that violence occurs in all prostitution setting, but differs in frequency and
severity
Who are the offenders?
o Violence is committed by a variety of people
o Majority of violence is committed by CLIENTS!
o Profile of a violent client:
Male, middle aged (30s), middle class, married and in full-time employment
o Profile of a prostitute homicide offender:
Male, 30s, employed, & not married
o Profile of the average client
Male, middle aged (30s), employed & married
Why clients become violent?
o Time and quality of the service
o Attempting to get their money back
o When the client is under the influence of alcohol
o Refusal of the types of sexual services clients wanted
o Disputes over money and clients not wanting to pay
o Sex worker ending the transaction before client ejaculation
o Sexual delay or dysfunction by the client
o Condom use insistence by the worker
o When women are identified as prostitutes, rapes tend to be more brutal and results in more injuries
o 52% say they have been attacked for no apparent reason
Problems in the Investigations
o Many cases go unresolved
UK: 69% remain unsolved (Kinnel, 2001)
Time to arrest
o No scientific evidence that police devote less time to the investigation of marginalized victims
o Lack of information i.e. missing missing
o Transient nature of marginalized victims
o Specific crime scene behaviors (Salafati et al, 2008)
o Secrecy of offenders actions (Boyton, 2001)
o Multiple DNA on the victim body when found
Key points
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