CRIM 320 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Substance Abuse, Central Tendency, Operationalization

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Crim 320 week 2
Objectives
- Identify and explain issues about conceptualization and operationalization
- The important infor for your proposal
- Define statistical concepts relating to measurement of counts:
- Ratios, percentages, proportions and rates, central tendency, and dispersion
- Define and give examples of the different levels of measurement.
**For the paper, staple checklist, and follow it, literally just everything checked off when it’s getting
marked.**
Topic : Crime rates in 125 American cities Lit review : 3 sources, journals, i.e. Quantitative Crim
Journal(how other researchers have looked at crime and how it differs between/across cities) do not do
an annotated bibliography Theory Hypothesis Conceptualization (x4) Operationaization (3 for
each concept.)
The role of theory
- Deductive: top down
- “Theory,” we construct hypotheses that we subsequently test with data
- Inductive: bottom up
- Theory is derived from from empirical generalization based on the observations
Measurement
- The process of assigning a unit of analysis to n attributed or a variable
- Unit of analysis the person or thing from which data are collected
- A variable a set of logical attributes that are of interest to the researcher
- For example, assume we want to study judicial opinions on a given subject
Example: Judicial Opinions
- Judges = units of analysis
- On what relevant attributes might judges differ?
- What characteristics of the judges might influence their opinion
Conceptualization
- Theorectical definitions that direct the sarch for an appropriate measure of concepts and
establish a basis for judging the quality of the measure
- Moving from the abstract to the concrete
- Providing specific definitions
- Two examples:
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