# CRIM 320 Lecture Notes - Anger Management, Repeated Measures Design, Standard Deviation

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13 Apr 2012

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Crim 320

Week 10

March 12, 2012

Introduction to t test

- Context

- Main goal

- Assumptions

- Procedures

- Independent-sample t-test

- Summary

Difference between two population means

- Type of research questions

- Two variables are under investigations

o One nominal variable with only two attributes as the IV

o One interval/ratio variable considered the DV

Of fingers, toes and penises

- Study published in Nature, by Kondo et a. (1997)

- Identification of the Hox genes: Hox_a and Hox_d

- Responsible for the development of both fingers and the urogenital system

- Removal of the genes in mice leads to foetus characterized y the absence of digits and genitalia

- Hox gene also found in humans

- 2nd to 4th digit ratio increasingly used as a proxy measure of exposure to fetal testosterone (in

utero)

- The relative 2D:4D finger lenth is established as early as the 14th week after birth

- 2D:4D is lower in males than females

T-test

- Research question

o Research seems to suggest a link between gender digit ratio

- Research hypothesis

o H1: Males have a lower 2D:4D digit ratio than females

- Null hypothesis

o H0: There are no significant differences in 2D:4D digit ratio between males and females

Difference between two-sample means

Population 1 “males”

Population 2 “females”

Pop mean

Pop st. dev

Sample mean

Sample st. dev

Sample size

n1

n2

Main goal of the t-test

- Inferential statistical procedure

o Allow to test hypotheses about the differences between two populations means (u1-u2)

o The statistical procedures involve testing a hypothesis using two sample means (x1-x2)

Difference between two sample means

- Descriptive analysis of the variables under investigation

o First, the nominal variable

o The two “samples” or groups being compared

o Gender of the participant

o Second, the interval variable

o The variable reflecting the 2D:4D ratio

o Length of the 2nd digit divided by the length of the 4th digit

o Third, inspection of group means

o Analysis can only be done on cases for which we have information obn both variables,

i.e., gender and 2D:4D ratio

o Inspection of group means reveal differences:

1-Mean of .98 (SD=.04) for women

2-Mean of ..95 (SD=.04) for men

Notice that the st. dev is very similar for men and women

Notice also that the range or “response” is the same for men and women

- Differnece between two-saple means

o Preliminary observations

o Based on our sample statistics, we can conclude that:

Xwomen > Xmen

A mean difference of .03 is observed

Two scenarios might explain this result

- Scenario #1: no difference in the population means, if you have data for the whole province

then we won’t be finding any difference between males and females. (graph looks symmetrical)

- Scenario #2: a true difference in the population means. The difference we’re getting using

sample statistics might actually be indicative of TRUE differences in general population (there is

two graphs because of the different ratios)

- Because we have sample data and not population data, mean differences observed may be due

to:

o Real differences in the popn (u2>u1)