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Lecture 2

Crim 320 week 2.doc

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CRIM 320
Patrick Lussier

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1 Crim 320 Week 2 January 16, 2012 Foundations of Quantitative Research - Shrink font size to limits of human perception - Take out excessive details of your methodology Dont rely on the researcher to tell you what they found or the results. Think about whether it was a good measure for drug use, who was interviewed, all those things that are determined by the researchers Objectives Foundations in quantitative research: work on these four elements for the research project for this class. -Theory, concepts and prediction -Conceptualization -Operationalisation -Variables and level of measurement Goals of research - Description of the phenomenon (who is involved?) - Exploration (what is going on: contexts, motives of people involved. How prevalent or frequent is it) - Explanation (why is something happening? What are the causes and risk factors of the phenomenon) - Evaluation (what works, what doesnt. is it effective, is it working, what is the impact of what were doing in terms of preventing or intervening specific crimes) For example, intimate partner violence (IPV) - Description o Estimating the prevalence of IPV and the characteristics of the persons involved the goal is to determine the prevalence of victimization - Exploration o Determining the context in which individuals get involved in IPV and the motivations to do so i.e. why are men violent against their partner? In what context does violence typically occur? What type of violence is occurring? 2 - Explanation o Examining the risk factors of IPV Are there specific characteristics or childhood background associated with this phenomenon? What will increase the likelihood of this violence or victimization? - Evaluation o Evaluation of treatment programs for individuals involved in IPV Are they effective to eliminate/prevent/reduce the behaviour? Within the domain of IPV we could look at aspects like continuity, seriousness, diversity of acts, who it was committed against over time and in what type of settings Example Study done with D. Farrington published 2 years ago the study looked at the childhood background of men who were perpetrators of IPV IS THE ANTISOCIAL CHILD FATHER OF THE ABUSIVE MAN? A 40 YEAR PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE Explanatory: explain risk factors, prediction of IPV. Whether childhood experiences and characteristics were indicative of men becoming abusive to their partners. Can we predict 40 years ahead who will abuse their partner? Sample size: is 202 men good enough? Size matters but whats more crucial is how they were recruited. If randomized sample then 202 is good, but if they were selected in a bias manner it is not good even if it was larger. An important aspect of research is replication. One study alone is never enough because every study has its own empirical limitations. If the study was done in England and another in Australia had the same findings, what does it say about cultural differences? This is why pooling data from different studies is important to see the similarities or differences in findings. This study is unique because it follows the same group of men for 40 years, lots of money and time, big investments. Maybe men are more likely to be victimized but females are more likely to end up with serious injuries Neuropsychological deficits were associated with IPV 40 years later (mental illnesses, personality disorders, chemical imbalances: serotonin levels). The operational definition of neuropsychological deficit is important, how did they measure it? How was it conceptualized AND how it was measured.3 There are numerous criminological facts - In 2004, in canada only o More than 2500 000 crimes reported to the police o More than 1 300 000 property crimes reported to the police - The actual numbers are really high and its not humanly possible to varify all facts Making sense of every single fact is difficult - Cannot study every single criminological fact - Simplification must be introduced - Hard to decide which one o Important factors may not be known o Relevant variables may not be included in the study o Not enough cases to highlight all possible patterns o Etc. - Introduce who, what and how youll be studying. When the Cambridge study was launched, they didnt measure self control theory of Gottfredson and Hirschi, thats 30 years later. So i
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