CRIM 320 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Frequency Distribution, Central Tendency, Codebook

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13 Apr 2012
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Crim 320 Week 3
January 23, 2012
Finishing off last week’s slides:
Foundations of Quantitative Research
Attributes (level of measurement)
- Qualities or quantities that describe the variable
Types of Attributes
- Qualitative (attributes that vary in kind)
o Nominal data
o Ordinal data
- Quantitative (attributes that vary in degree)
o Interval data
o Ratio data
Operationalisation
Concept
Dimensions
Variables
Attributes
Grasmick’s Low self-
control scale (Grasmick
et al, 1993)
Preference for
immediate gratifications
Physical
Pereference for simple
seeking
Lack of concerns for
others
Lac of tolerance to
frustrations
I am not concerned by
the future
If given the choice I
prefer to do physical
activity than doing
When a situation
becomes complex, I
prefer to take myself
out of it
I like to take risk just for
the fun of it
1. Strongly agree
2. Somewhat
agree
3. Somewhat
disagree
4. Strongly
disagree
Based on theory of low self control by Gottfredson and Hirschi, Grasmick created low self control scale,
the theory was used to define dimensions of the concepts. For each dimension you need variables and
for teach variable you have scores (1-4, strongly agree to strongly disagree)
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The type of variable is really important to understand because it will impact the type of analysis you can
draw from it. With each of the variables you are limited to types of statistical analysis. We approach
each type of variable differently depending on whether they are nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio
Type of
Variables
Exhaustive
(classify all
attributes)
Mutually
exclusive
(classify in only
1 category)
Rank-Ordered
Equal and
constant
difference
between two
values for
every two
points
Zero has a
meaning
(0=the absence
of something)
Nominal
X
X
Ordinal
X
X
X
Interval
X
X
X
X
Ratio
X
X
X
X
X
Exhaustive: Everyone must be able to answer the questions, and each person should fall into ONE
category, not more.
Mutually excluseive: it is not possible someone can pick 1,2, (strongly agree,AND somewhat agree)
Rank order: to the statement in terms of agreement with the statement, thus it is ordinal
equal and constant difference (Interval): between each value (of the attributes), the numbers 1,2,3,4
mean nothing. If you remove the labels the numbers don’t mean anything with respect to the variables.
The actual number does not mean anything, there is no concrete distance between strongly agree to
somewhat agree, may be if 10, 20, 30, 40 where used, it would have been more of a concrete distance.
Dimensions (when the
concept is present)
Variables (victimization)
Attributes
Verbal aggression
Use of verbal n
nonverbal acts which
symbolically hurt the
other, or the use of
threats to hurt the
other in order to solve
conflict
Physical
The use of physical force
against more another
1. Cursing or swearing
at you
2. Ordering you
around
3. Insulting or
humiliating you
1. Pushing, grabbing
or shoving you
2. Kicking, biting or
How many
times did
this happen
in the past
5 years?
__
__
__
How many
times did
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person as a means of
resolving the conflict
hitting you
3. Threaten you with
knife/gun
this happen
in the past
5 years?
__
__
__
Zero has a meaning on the conflict tactic scale.
When you are designing a questionnaire or survey, it is best to think about a questionnaire that uses
Ratio type variable, because you can always go back to other types of variables.
Concept
Dimension
Variables
Attributes
Alabama Parenting
scale
1. Never
2. Rarely
3. Sometimes
4. always
1.2.3.4.
1.2.3.4.
1.2.3.4.
1.2.3.4.
Researchers will disagree with this one, whether there is concrete distance or not
EXAMPLES
Gender:___
(0) Male
(1) Female
Nominal: mutually exclusive, mutually exhaustive but no rank order
0. less than 15000
1 .Between 15000 35000
2. Between 35001 75000
3. Between 75001- 125000
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