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Lecture 3

Crim 320 Week 3.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 320
Patrick Lussier

1 Crim 320 Week 3 January 23, 2012 Finishing off last week’s slides: Foundations of Quantitative Research Attributes (level of measurement) - Qualities or quantities that describe the variable Types of Attributes - Qualitative (attributes that vary in kind) o Nominal data o Ordinal data - Quantitative (attributes that vary in degree) o Interval data o Ratio data Operationalisation Concept Dimensions Variables Attributes Grasmick’s Low self- Preference for I am not concerned by 1. Strongly agree control scale (Grasmick immediate gratifications the future et al, 1993) 2. Somewhat Physical If given the choice I agree Pereference for simple prefer to do physical 3. Somewhat activity than doing tasks some reading disagree Adventurous, sensation- When a situation 4. Strongly seeking becomes complex, I disagree Lack of concerns for prefer to take myself others out of it Lac of tolerance to I like to take risk just for the fun of it frustrations Based on theory of low self control by Gottfredson and Hirschi, Grasmick created low self control scale, the theory was used to define dimensions of the concepts. For each dimension you need variables and for teach variable you have scores (1-4, strongly agree to strongly disagree) 2 The type of variable is really important to understand because it will impact the type of analysis you can draw from it. With each of the variables you are limited to types of statistical analysis. We approach each type of variable differently depending on whether they are nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio Type of Exhaustive Mutually Rank-Ordered Equal and Zero has a Variables (classify all exclusive constant meaning attributes) (classify in only difference (0=the absence 1 category) between two of something) adjacent values for every two points Nominal X X Ordinal X X X Interval X X X X Ratio X X X X X Exhaustive: Everyone must be able to answer the questions, and each person should fall into ONE category, not more. Mutually excluseive: it is not possible someone can pick 1,2, (strongly agree,AND somewhat agree) Rank order: to the statement in terms of agreement with the statement, thus it is ordinal equal and constant difference (Interval): between each value (of the attributes), the numbers 1,2,3,4 mean nothing. If you remove the labels the numbers don’t mean anything with respect to the variables. The actual number does not mean anything, there is no concrete distance between strongly agree to somewhat agree, may be if 10, 20, 30, 40 where used, it would have been more of a concrete distance. Concept Dimensions (when the Variables (victimization) Attributes concept is present) Conflict tactic scale Verbal aggression 1. Cursing or swearing How many measure of IPV (straus) at you times did Use of verbal n this happen nonverbal acts which 2. Ordering you in the past symbolically hurt the around 5 years? other, or the use of 3. Insulting or threats to hurt the humiliating you __ other in order to solve conflict __ Physical __ 1. Pushing, grabbing The use of physical force or shoving you How many against more another times did 2. Kicking, biting or 3 person as a means of hitting you this happen resolving the conflict in the past 3. Threaten you with 5 years? knife/gun __ __ __ Zero has a meaning on the conflict tactic scale. When you are designing a questionnaire or survey, it is best to think about a questionnaire that uses Ratio type variable, because you can always go back to other types of variables. Concept Dimension Variables Attributes Alabama Parenting 1. Never scale 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. always Researchers will disagree with this one, whether there is concrete distance or not EXAMPLES Gender:___ (0) Male (1) Female Nominal: mutually exclusive, mutually exhaustive but no rank order What is your annual income? 0. less than 15000 1 .Between 15000 – 35000 2. Between 35001 – 75000 3. Between 75001- 125000 4 4. More than 125000 Ordinal: Not an equal distance the number (?) Type of crime committed:__ 0 property crime 1 crime related to the administ of justice 2 violent crime 3 drug related crime 4 sex crime 5 other Nominal: mutually exclusive, mutually exhaustive, not rank order. Sex crimes- there is a wide range of sex crimes and there are minor types of behaviour which goes from touching to sexual homicide, thus you can’t rank order them even within those categories. Also there is a category saying “others’ so that everyone can answer. To make them mutually exclusive, you would have to come up with concrete questions specifying activities, in order to prevent overlapping What is your annual income:______ Ratio: becau
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