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EASC 104 (11)
Lecture

Volcano Monitoring.docx

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
EASC 104
Professor
Jeffrey Zurek

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June 4th Iceland is a hotspot (midterm material) -sits right along the mid-Atlantic ridge -part of the mid-Atlantic ridge and is a hotspot -common for hotspots to occur on ridge systems -partial melting due to heat; don't see a string of island for island -hot spot is stationary and access to ridge is stationary = more likely to see volcanoes Volcanoes II Slide 9 Lahars: concentrated volcanic mud flow/ debris flow Slide 11 Volcanic Gases: can destroy crops -toxic mixture which can cause havoc in human body Lake Nyos: lake inside a crater throughout time, thick rich layer formed landslide causes all the water to overturn, releasing all CO2 in one go bubbles down the valley below and kills animals/people (not very common) Side 12 Volcanic Gases: gases reduce solar radiation sulfur dioxide is easily dissolvable, but doesn't readily happen in this case Perceived Activity & Risk: more and more people live closer to volcanoes, more volcanoes erupting per year (not entirely true) amount of volcanoes erupting over time has not increased Volcano Monitoring Slide 1 Yellow Stone: hot spot Slide 2 Volcanic Risk: Vulnerability is a function of the exposure & reoccurrence of hazard Slide 3 Risk identification: Tephra: the material through explosive eruptions (not always plinian; anything explosive that throws it in the air) -anything that falls back to the earth -can cause lahars and harden the surface of the ground Volcano Monitoring Methods: Core Methods: gas Geochemical monitoring: test the groundwater (groundwater table) Radar interferometry: INSAR Thermal monitoring: satellite can tell us what the temperature of the ground is Slide 4 Seismic Monitoring: -earthquakes happen at volcanoes; heartbeat of the volcano -baseline data tells us what is normal activity for volcanoes -need enough seismic networks to pick up earthquakes in all directions (6+ stations closest to the volcano and some outside) Seismogram Interpretation: -dense crust: p & s waves quicken -thin crust: p & s waves slow down -frequency tells u
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