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Earth Sciences
EASC 108
Glyn Williams- Jones

f130123 Comparative Planetology Recall: The orbits - Planets make up ~0.15% of our solar system’s mass - Sun accounts for the other 99.85% - Dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, Eris - A planet’s orbit lies in an orbital plane o Orbital planes of the planets are inclined o Orbital planes of 7 planets lie within 3 degrees of Sun’s equator - Twomajor planet types: o Jovian: gaseous, larger, farther from Sun  Helium, Hydrogen o Terrestrial planets are rocky relatively small, and close to Sun Look for similarities - many of the planets are similar: ex. Terrestrials o earth, mars both have volcanoes, craters, atmospheres, water features o Alcove, channels, aprons (mars & earth)  represents terrestrial Look for differences - each planet has its unique set of properties o Jupiter – huge gas giant with colored atmosphere Look for similarities and differences - Saturn has a similar composition as Jupiter o But prominent rings Relative sizes - how do we meausure the diameters of the planets? o Know distances (d. from Newton, Kepler) o Observe angular size (a. in arcseconds) o Derive the diameter from the angular size of equation: D=a*d/206/265  Mars: ~0.5 x Earth  Jupiter: ~11 x Earth  Neptune: ~4 x Earth  Sun: ~109 x Earth Size of Terrestrial Planets - Mercury: 4,880 km - Mars 6,792 km - Venus: 12,104 km - Earth 12, 756 km (twin planets) - Moon: 3,485 km Size of Jovian Planets - Jupiter: 142,964 km - Neptune: 49,502 km - Uranus: 51,118 km - Saturn: 120,536 km, 273,600 km (rings) Relative Masses - How do we mearuse mass? o If a planet has satellite(s), measure using Kepler, Newton Laws o Send a spacecraft by the planet, measure “tug” on craft  Spacecraft path deflected by an amount of proportional to its mass o Mars: ~0.1 x Earth o Jupiter: ~320 x Earth o Neptune: ~17 x Earth o Sun: ~300,000 x Earth Densities of the planets - how do we measure their densities? o Once we know mass & diameter, get volume (4/3 r ) 3 o Density = mass/volume = kg/m 3 o Air (near sea level) = 1.2 kg/m 3 3 o Water (average) = 1000 kg/m  1 litre = 1000 cm = 1 kg o Concrete = 1000 kg/m 3 - Earth: 5515 kg/m 3 - Mars: 3934 km/m 3 3 - Jupiter: 1326 kg/m -
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