Interpersonal communication focuses on facial expressions
Online communication is limited to text and images
Communication: a process by which information is transferred between two or
Nonverbal communication is something over which it is very difficult – indeed,
often impossible – for us to exercise absolute control.
Our bodies can sometimes operate like billboards advertising the emotions we
are experiencing even when we try hard to remain unreadable. A poker face is a
hard thing to master.
We are constantly engaged in the transmission and reception of communication
signals that are produced by unconscious and involuntary processes, and these
signals can have important consequences for the way that we interpret other
people’s moods, intentions, and attitudes.
Most crucially, perhaps, Pfungst’s conclusions further demonstrated that a good
deal of ourcommunication takes place below the threshold of everyday awareness.
Can we, as communicators, do things that will guarantee the success of our
efforts at communication?
Yes; Efficiency, success, and fidelity
Early communication theorists had less interest in what was being
communicated than in how the message was put together [encoded], sent
[transmitted], and then understood [decoded].
This way of thinking about communication and information is really concerned
with the distinction between process and content.
Monological Models of Communication involve a one-way movement of
information from an identifiable sender to one or more receivers.
The Action Model: The monological, action model of communication is a linear
model in which meaning is transferred through space from one agent to another by
means of a communication medium such as speech or writing. Thus the linear model
is precise, basic, and direct.
Two-step flow model: The two-step flow model of communication takes notice of
the role of opinion leaders who receive, interpret, and redistribute the original
message to large numbers of people.
Today we might think about the two-step model as useful in explaining social
media, including platforms like Twitter where a single person can have dozens,
hundreds, thousands, or even millions of “followers.”
Interaction Model: In a dialogue, each person does not attempt to make common
certain ideas or items of information that are already known to him. Rather, it may
be said that the two people are making something in common, i.e., creating
something new together.
Transactional Model: By and large, our daily communication takes place as a
continuous series of information transfer, information reception, feedback,
response, and so on. In other words, we are often senders and receivers at one and
the same time.
Communication as Transaction: We say that we ‘conduct’ a conversation, but the
more fundamental a conversation is, the less its conduct lies within the will of either
party. Thus a fundamental conversation is never one that we want to conduct. Rather, it
is generally more correct to say that we fall into conversation, or even that we
become involved in it.
Transmission model: Communication is the process of moving messages from a
sender through a medium to a receiver.
Ritual (cultural) model: Communication is the construction of a shared space or
map of meaning within which people coexist.
The Call of Nature Hypothesis
The Gestural Origins Hypothesis
Hockett’s design features to language:
Rapid fading- The sound made by speech diminishes quickly after being released.
Interchangeability- The speaker has the ability to receive and also send the same
Intrapersonal Feedback- Individuals are able to hear and internalize a message
they have sent.
Semanticity- Speech sounds can be linked to specific meanings.
Arbitrariness- There is no direct connection between the signal and its meaning.
Displacement- The ability to talk about things that are not physically present.
Productivity- The ability to create new messages by combining already-existing
Tradition- The learning of language occurs in social groups.
Prevarication- The ability to make false statements (to lie). Involves the
purposeful manipulation of a given shared communication system in order to fool
other members of the communicating group.
Reflectivity [meta-communication]- Language can be used to refer to (i.e.,
Concatenation (Duality of Patterning)- Meaningless phonic segments (phonemes)
are combined to make meaningful words, which in turn are combined again to make
Orality & Literacy:
Ong and McLuhan approached the notion of historical development by examining
the forms of communication technology that were dominant in each historical era.
Ong’s main interest was in the way that oral societies and literate societies differ,
and his specific emphasis was to study how the change from orality to literacy had
significant social, cultural, and educational implications.
Testimony in courts must be given orally
Orality is important in public debates, especially in political forums
Graduate students must complete an oral examination
Marriage ceremonies have an important verbal, ritual component
We can say that although the significance of contemporary occasions of orality
may sometimes be ceremonial, they are not in any sense unimportant or merely
Mnemonics: Science and techniques for aiding m