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EXPL 130 (10)
Lecture

130 notes.docx

38 Pages
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Department
Explorations
Course Code
EXPL 130
Professor
Jen Marchbank

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Description
Global Development Issues and PatternsScope of Course y Economic social and political aspects of global development from the First Industrial Nation to debates around Globalisation and Globality y explanations of social changesome historical some political and others drawing on social geography sociology and economics y why different countries developed at different times and how that development process varies y the agricultural and industrial revolutions to the impact of tourism and transnational companies on modern societies y issues of nationalism globalization and the effect of conflict upon societies Different Worlds sty 1 Worldwestern capitalist democraciesndy 2 Worldcommunist countries of Soviet bloc until 1989 rdy 3 Worldpoor countries not aligned with either the above y Less useful now with collapse of communismincreased differences inAfrica LA AsiaGlobalisation y Intergration y Dynamic process y it is the inexorable integration of markets nationstates and technologies to a degree never witnessed beforeto reach round the world farther faster deeper cheaper than ever before also producing a powerful backlash from those brutalized or left behind Thomas Friedman2000 The Lexus and the Olive TreeGlobalisation y Is it new y Economictrade foreign investments income y Socialflows of peoples and communications y Politicalembassies presence peacekeeping missions memberships of international organisationWarwick Index y 19822001 y Economicincreased 267 y Politicalincreased 477 y Socialincreased 3786 y Overallincreased 1231 y Cohen and Kennedy 2007531 y What now with FacebookFirst Industrial NationBRITIAN y From Agrarian to Industrial Society y Understand changes in agriculture in Britain from 1700 y Understand why Britain was the first industrial nation y Understand that invention and innovation can have a time lag y Understand demographic changes and reasons for change y Discuss the connections between agricultural industrial technological and social changeAgricultural ChangesReasons for y Population growth y Population movement y Transport improvements y War y Business for profitsmall amount of capital requiredAgricultural Changes y Open field system y Enclosuresrequired Acts of Parliament Government involvement y Enclosures facilitated use of new technologies y Increases in area of land under cultivation y Crop rotation legumesPopulation Changes y Agricultural population actually increased y Urban population rapidly increased y Debate on excess rural population y Urban populations created market for agricultural goods y Details Hobsbawn p20Industrial Revolution y 1700 most British industries were small scale and domestic workshops within houses y 1720advantages of factory organisation becoming known y Technological developments y 1851 Great ExhibitionWorkshop of the WorldWhy Britain y BUT Climatic factors geography the distribution of natural resources operate not on their own but only within a given economic social and institutional framework Hobsbawn 199915 Also y Transport y Inventors y Population y Finance y Empire y Powerclimategood geography y Lack of foreign competition Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves 1764y EXPORTSthe SPARKy Government support both in terms of trade and foreign policy waged wars to protect marketsEncouraged sea transportationCotton first to be industrialised tied to overseas trade y HOME MARKETbroad base for economic growth workers had to buy food in cities encouraged improvements in domestic transportationthe draft y GOVERNMENTsystematic support for merchants and manufacturers through tariffs protection of colonial markets permitting of slave trade etcLaissezfaire y Karl Polanyi 1957 y nothing natural about laissez faire free markets could never have come into being by merely allowing things to take their coursethe free market was opened up and kept open by an enormous increase in continuous centrally organized and controlled interventionism y Polanyi cited in Munck 2005146 CK p534 In Summary y 7 factors advantaged Britain BUT y Role of Government y Role of Home Market y Role of ExportMarket y Remember these last three each time we look at other countries development Explanations of Societal DevelopmentMARXWEBER y Marx and Social Change y Historical materialism y Pattern to how different societies have organised the production of lifes necessities and other goods y 5 modes of productionprimitive communism ancient feudalism capitalism true communism y Conflict drives the move from one form to anotherThe first historical act is the production of material life itselfThis is indeed a historical act a fundamental condition of all history Marx 196460Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy trans T B Bottomore London McGrawHillBaseSuperstructure
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