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Lecture 9

GEOG 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Sustainable Forestry Initiative, Clearcutting, Forest Stewardship Council

Course Code
GEOG 102
Faran Ali

of 2
Week 9
Forest • Historically, a dened area of land set aside in England as a royal hunng ground • A dense
growth of trees, plants, and underbrush covering a large area – Forest: 60‐100% cover (most dense)
Woodland: 25‐60% cover (more open) – Savanna:
The Earth’s Forests • Trees and shrubs: ~35% of Earth’s land surface
• Forests: ~27% of Earth’s land surface (3.4 billion ha)
• Russia, Brazil, Canada, and the U.S. together contain more than 50% of Earth’s forests • Intensive use
of forests
Global deforestaon • Deforestaon = ‘complete clearing of tree formaons’ •
Deforestaon ≠ harvesng or logging. Examples: conversion of forestlands to farms, ranches and urban
use • ~50% of the worlds original forests have been destroyed
• More than half of the rain forests have been destroyed • More than half of the world’s animal and
plant species live in tropical forests • Net global annual loss of forest cover: 0.22%
• Canada is the world’s 2nd largest producer of so@wood lumber and the largest exporter (> 60% to the
US) – so@wood: coniferous, pines, rs, needle leaves – hardwood: deciduous, oak, maple, broad leaves •
> 70% of Canada’s forests and other wooded land have never been harvested • > 40% has been deemed
non‐commercial or wilderness • Only about 0.3% of Canada's commercial forest is harvested each year
(i.e., 0.9 million ha) • esmated 2.4 million ha per year lost to re and diseases
1. Logging • ~900,000 ha annually; 90% through clear‐cuGng pracces • habitat fragmentaon and
biodiversity loss • CPAWS reports that 1000s of migratory bird nests are destroyed in ON − CPAWS:
Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society • ~30 major pulp and paper mills (point source pollutants)
Clear‐cung • loggers remove all the trees from a parcular site and leave a barren landscape • 88% of
forest harvesng in Canada is clear‐cuGng
• clear‐cut areas may be reseeded or allowed to regenerate naturally
• when replanted, the new forest grows uniformly in species and size
Canada’s Naonal Forest Strategy Objecves and Iniaves 1. Ecosystem‐based management •
Integrated land use planning: system of representave and connected protected areas; maintenance of
‘net carbon sinks’; conservaon of old growth forests 2. Sustainable forest communies
• Community sustainability: public parcipaon in management and decision‐ making; shared benets;
mulple forest benets; building resilience 3. Aboriginal peoples • Rights and parcipaon: recognion
of historical and legal posions; recognion of holisc interpretaons of Earth and ‘Creator’ 4. Forest
product benets
• Forest commodies: market and product diversicaon; non‐mber benets; value added in
harvesng; ISO cercaon
5. Knowledge and innovaon • New forest innovaon: enhancing educaon and training of forest
managers; public educaon and awareness; clusters of forest science and industry cooperaon 6. Urban
forests • Urban forestry strategies: planning and growth of urban forests; promong urban ecosystem
approaches 7. Private woodlots • Incenves and support: strengthen policies and support for viable
woodlot businesses 8. Reporng and accountability • Comprehensive forestry data base system
The Cer'caon Process
• Denion – a process of evaluang forests to determine if they are being managed according to an
agreed set of standards, with the goal of sustainable management
• Two‐part Process: 1. Cercaon: • inspecon of the forest management by an independent
organizaon to check that it passes internaonally agreed criteria
2. ‘Chain of custody: • the path taken by raw materials from the forest to the consumer, including all
successive stages of processing, transformaon, manufacturing and distribuon
Forest Cer'caon in Canada • Canada has the largest area of independently cered forests in the
world • Three compeng cercaon systems – CSA: Canadian Standards Associaon – SFI: Sustainable
Forestry Iniave – FSC: Forest Stewardship Council