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GEOG 162 (30)
Lecture 1

Geog162 Chapter 3 & 4 Faultines and Demographics.docx

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Simon Fraser University
GEOG 162
Michele Wiens

Faultlines, Demography, Population Pyramids, Population Change, Multiculturalism Chapter 3 and 4 4 Historical Events that Have Shaped and Continue to Shape Canada and Its Region Establishment of Indian and Inuit societies prior to European contract Arrival of French and British settlers in the 17 , 18 , and early 19 century (colonization) Confederation in 1867 (BNA Act) and territorial expansion until 1949 when Newfoundland joined Canada Changes to Immigration post 1967 Significance of These Events They underlay the principal tensions (faultlines) that affect national unity Aboriginal/Non-aboriginal issues Immigration French/English relations Centralist/Decentralist (federal-provincial government division of power) Bone’s Use of the Term Faultline The analogy is made with large cracks in the Earth’s crust caused by tectonic forces. Pulling apart and development of rifts Regional discontent in Canada and cracks in its national unity fabric are related to -requests by Aboriginal peoples for self-government and land rights -Quebec’s push for declaration of a distinct society -Alberta’s control of its natural resources -Economic disparities of Atlantic and Western Canada, etc Bone states that Quebec’s push is most threatening to Canada because a future referendum could point to sovereignty and re-organization of Canada. Aboriginal peoples want self- government and control over resource development but want to work within Canada’s framework Aboriginal/Non-aboriginal Faultlines -a call for justice by Aboriginal peoples to settle land disputes and enable development of self- government Aboriginal Peoples-those now living in Canada who can trace their ancestry to original th inhabitants who were in North America pre-contact with Europeans in the 15 century First People -30,000 years ago Old World Hunters came from Siberia -12,000 years ago New World Hunters (Paleo Indian) evolved from Old World Hunters and formed the more enduring social units which became the fore-runners of the North American Indian tribes who existed at the time of European contact Aboriginal Settlement from Time of Contact First people had settlement in forested lands of the sub Arctic, coastal and southern regions of Canada (even earlier than Arctic because ice sheets in the Arctic had melted and did so only 8,000 years ago) The settlement by First people was characterized as cultural regions-the geographic areas where Indians and Inuit obtained their food from hunting/gathering At the time of contact with Europeans, there were estimates of 500,000 Indians and Inuit -disease ravaged the populations Significance of the BNA Act (1867) and the Indian Act (1876) to Aboriginal Peoples Indian tribes were put under the control of Ottawa; later this was extended to all Aboriginal peoples to include the Inuit and Métis -the Canadian minister responsible for Indian affairs exercised total control over Indians and their land The Passing of the Indian Act Canada’s Indian policy was to civilize (assimilate) and integrate Indians, by degrees into Canadian social, economic, and political structures -traditional tribal government was seen as an obstacle to this process of civilization and integration -thus, this policy called for the elimination of indigenous political institutions -some claim that one of the purposes of the Act was to get Indians out of the way of settlement. The Act was a continuation of reserve system Reserves and Treaties Reserves-allocation of land to Aboriginals; held collectively by and for the benefit of the band Treaties-made between government and Indians Reasons for signing treaties varied -they generally included cash, presents, annual payments, promises of educational and agricultural assistance, allocation of land reserves, and the right to hunt and fish on Crown land Impact the Indian Act had on Aboriginal Peoples and Settlement It suppressed the traditional form of government The Indian Act made attendance at schools mandatory which brought on residential schools There were major detrimental effects on Aboriginal peoples Conflicting Ideas about the Significance of Treaties Crown Authorities-viewed treaties as vehicles for extinguishing Aboriginal rights and titles to land Aboriginal Peoples-viewed them as agreements between sovereign powers to share land and resources This lack of understanding, coupled with the facts that some Aboriginal groups never signed treaties and that the terms of other treaties have never been fulfilled, contributed to mounting frustration among Aboriginal peoples French/English Relations France and England established colonies in the 17 century By 1663, French population 3,000 Indians 10,000 By 1750, French populations 60,000 Indians sharp drop With British conquest of New France in 1759, British immigrants began moving to Canada. Over 100 years, the demographic power reversed with English speaking Canadians dominating French speaking Canadians Geographically, Ontario and Atlantic were decidedly British and in Quebec the majority French. This division ensured the continued existence of two visions of Canada The Two Visions French Canadians -saw Canada as two founding people and sharing of political power between the two partners -since the formation of Provincial of Canada (1841), working together resulted in a Canadian version of cultural dualism Advocate: Henri Bourassa -regarded Confederation as a moral contract that guaranteed French/English duality (preservation of French speaking Quebec and protection of the language and religious rights of French speaking Canadians in other provinces) -bilingual policies helped rejuvenate francophone minorities; previous to this, assimilation had weakened the position of francophones English Speaking Canadians -pushed for the notion of equal provinces -under Canada’s federal system, the powers of government are shared between the federal governmen
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