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Geog162 Chapter 6 Quebec.docx

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GEOG 162
Michele Wiens

Chapter 6 Quebec Physical Geography South -the heartland of Quebec lies in the St Lawrence Lowlands -offers natural advantages; arable land, key waterways, large population -the economic and cultural core; Montreal and Quebec City Appalachian Uplands -northern extension of the Appalachian Mountains; Gaspe Peninsula -along southern and eastern edges of the St Lawrence Valley North -shield occupies ¾ of Quebec’s territory Industrial Activities in Quebec Agriculture (St Lawrence lowland area) -seigniorial lot systems (long lots) characterize landscape Mining (Canadian Shield) -gold, copper (Noranda, Val d’or), iron (Schefferville-closed) Forestry (Canadian Shield) -pulp/paper milling is significant (Saguenay, Trios Rivieres, Erstie, etc) Tourism -francophone atmosphere, natural beauty, historic past Hydro-Electricity (Northern Quebec) -has the most sites in Canada; Hydro-Quebec: Crown corporation Manufacturing -massive restructuring; economic marginalization of Montreal/Quebec due to continentalization; not growing like the west Water Resources Why so much hydro-electric power in Quebec 1) heavy annual precipitation 2) high elevation of the Canadian Shield As a Crown corporation, Hydro-Quebec controls electricity in the province Hydro-Quebec has been successful at gamering huge power supplies (economic strength) through various projects Quebec has attracted companies into southern Quebec by offering them cheap power Two Hydro-Quebec Projects Manicouagan (1960s)-successful (lots of power; electricity transmitted from remote locations to southern markets) James Bay Project (LaGrande, Great Whale, Nottaway river basins, plus smaller rivers) -announced in 1971 by Robert Bourassa -lots of power generated but at a cost to fish and prime wildlife habitats, social impact on Cree’s hunting and trapping lifestyle -project involves an area about 1/5 the size of Quebec Aboriginal/Non-aboriginal Faultlines Inuit and Cree Litigation re: James Bay Project -the north seemed to be at the mercy of economic and social objectives of the Quebec government expansion of hydro-electric development, mining, etc -the Inuit and Cree took the Quebec government to court to stop the development -outcome was the James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement 1975 James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement th -a $90 million settlement surrendered Inuit title to land above the 55 parallel in Northern Quebec -Inuit would keep exclusive rights to use of 3000 km -there would be Katavik School Board to run schools, Katavik Health and Social Services to manage health, etc. Nunivak is the name given to the area -the agreement gave power to Inuit and it gave resource access for the south. It ended an era of federal government control -there have been some dissident communities -Cree have expressed dissatisfaction; lack of consult Income Security Program for Cree Trappers and Hunters -arose out of the James Bay Agreement -offers a means of supporting traditional lifestyle of Cree hunters and trappers in the form of guaranteed income rather than social assistance -government pay a cash income plus allowance to Cree each day spent on the land (120 days minimum) -mak
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