GEOG 162 Lecture 3: Geography 162_Chapter 3 notes

234 views11 pages
Canada’s'Historical'Geography'
Understanding+of+the+territorial+evolution+of+Canada,+4+major+faultlines+are+
considered.+
o
First+people,+second+people,+third+people,+and+faultlines+are+introduced
o
Historical+development+of+Canada+
o
Old:+1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+
bridge+40,000+years+ago+
§
Young:+Canada+became+a+formal+nation+in+1867+with+the+passing+of+the+
British+North+America+Act.+
§
How+Canada+is+both+young+and+old+
o
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+France+and+England
§
The+influx+of+people+from+Central+Europe+and+czarist+Russia
§
3+influential+events:+
o
Key+concepts:
English+and+french+speakers
o
Centralists+and+decentralists
o
New+and+old+canadians+
o
Aboriginal+and+non-aboriginal+canadians
o
4+major+faultlines:
1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+bridge+
40,000+years+ago+
o
Beringia+-product+of+the+last+ice+advance+when+so+much+water+was+contained+in+
the+continental+glaciers+ that+the+sea+level+ dropped,+thus+exposing+the+ocean+
bottom+b/w+Siberia+and+Alaska
o
Old+world+hunters+who+had+beenblocked+from+proceeding+
south+by+the+ice+sheet+were+now+able+to+migrate+south
The+corridor+theory
§
Old+world+hunters+reaching+interior+of+N.A.+before+ice+sheet+
melt,+by+island+hopping+along+the+edge+of+the+Cordilera+ice+
sheet+until+they+reached+the+unglaciated+US+Pacific+coast
The+sea+route+theory+
§
Two+routes+by+which+first+peoples+are+thought+to+have+moved+through+
N.A.+
§
Two+theories+of+diffusion+in+North+America:+slide+6
o
First+peoples:+1ST+KEY+EVENT
Descendants+of+the+old+world+hunters
o
Folsom+or+plano+-developed+a+variety+of+unfluted+stone+points+with+stems+
for+attachment+to+spear+shafts+
§
Weapons+more+suitable+
§
Later+Paleo-indians+
o
Common+set+of+natural+conditions+that+resulted+in+similar+plants+and+
animals
§
Inhabitants+who+used+a+common+set+of+hunting,+fishing+and+food-
gathering+techniques+and+tools+
§
Culture+areas
o
Algonquian-speaking+indians+had+to+hunt+big-game+animals+(caribou)+
o
Paleo-indians+(pg.+69)
Melting+of+the+ice+sheets+that+covered+this+physiographic+region+
§
Emergence+of+a+hunting+technique+that+would+enable+people+to+live+
In+an+arctic+environment
§
2+ways+for+ppl+to+occupy+the+arctic+lands
§
Arctic+migration
o
Were+almost+500,000+Indians+when+this+happened
§
Population+declined+due+to+loss+of+hunting+grounds+to+Europeans+settlers,+
spread+of+new+diseases+and+conflicts.
§
Europeans+considered+the+new+world+terra+nullius+or+empty+lands,+even+though+
old+world+hunters+were+already+there+
o
With+arrival+of+European+settlers.+French+and+British+-the+aboriginal/non-
aboriginal+fault-line+began+to+develop
o
Initial+contacts:
Eastern+Woodlands
o
Eastern+Subarctic
o
Western+Subarctic
o
Arctic
o
Plains
o
Plateau
o
Northwest+Coast
o
Culture+regions:+7+in+present-day+Canada+-->+map:+slide+9
Which+was+the+establishment+and+development+of+New+France+
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+the+French+and+the+British+was+the+second+major+
development+in+Canada's+early+history++(2ND+KEY+EVENT)
o
Led+to+a+demographic+shift+from+a+French-Canadian+majority+to+an+English-
speaking+majority.+
§
British+conquest+of+New+France
o
The+first+permanent+settlement+in+Canada,+founded+in+1608+
§
Quebec+City+
o
The+second+people
loyalists+fleeing+American+War+of+Independence+(1775+-83)
§
Threats+of+Americas+manifest+destiny,+the+way+of+1812,+and+American+and+
British+expansion
§
Following+british+conquest+of+New+France,+there+was+a+first+major+wave+of+
British+immigrants+
o
Second+major+wave+of+British+and+Irish+immigrants+occurred+in+first+half+of+19th+
century+
o
By+1860's+Canadians+ethnic+character+varied+by+region
o
The+two+waves+greatly+changed+Canada,+the+demographic+balance+of+power+
from+a+french-canadian+majority+to+an+english-speaking+one+
o
The+second+people,+continued
Upper+and+Lower+Canada+(Ontario+and+Quebec),+Nova+Scotia+
and+New+Brunswick
Joining+of+4+colonies:
§
Britain:+essential+to+withstand+American+annexation
Quebec:+concern+for+language,+religion,+culture
Maritimes:+economy+orientated+to+sea+not+Central+Canada+
Varying+perspectives+on+this+
§
Confederation+(1867)+with+the+British+North+America+Act
§
3RD+KEY+EVENT
o
The+nature+of+confederation+was+such+that+provincial+powers+were+shared+
equally
§
The+british+formed+the+majority+of+the+pop.+In+three+of+the+four+provinces,+
thereby+dominating+the+political+affairs+of+those+provinces
§
The+british,+while+a+minority+within+Quebec,+were+the+dominant+buisness+
group.+
§
In+English+Canada,+the+notion+of+equal+provinces+grew+out+of+the+following+
factors:
o
The+second+people,+continued
French+vision:+confederation+about+two+founding+peoples+(French+and+
English+
§
British+vision:+collection+of+equal+provinces+in+the+context+of+British+
dominance+
§
Difference+in+vision+in+confederation
o
Separation+of+British+and+French+represents+challenge+to+Canadian+national+
unity
o
The+second+people,+continued
Old+and+new+Canadians+fault+line+around+turn+of+20th+century
o
3rd+group+of+Immigrants,+not+british+or+French
o
Ottawa+obtaining+land+of+Hudsons+Bay+Co+(1870)
§
Dominon+Lands+Act+(1872)
§
Completion+of+CPR+(1885)
§
Therefore,+early+part+of+20th+century,+settlement+of+western+Canada+followed+3+
important+events
o
To+serve+as+a+counter+threat+of+American+expansion
§
A+desire+to+establish+agricultural+(grain)+economy+
§
Turned+attention+to+ppl+of+central+Europe,+Scandinavia+and+czarist+Russia
§
Settlement+of+western+Canada+important+because:
o
The+third+people
To+lure+people+from+Britain+and+the+U.S.+
§
SIFTON'S+IMMIGRATION+POLICY changed+the+face+of+Canada
§
Cultural/linguistic+difference+later+became+powerful+force+for+
multiculturalism+and+pluralism+in+English-speaking+Canada+
§
Implications+for+French/English+character+of+the+country?+For+first+Nations?+
o
The+third+people,+continued+
Ontario,+Quebec,+Nova+Scotia+and+New+Brunswick+
§
United+4+colonies+into+the+Dominion+of+Canada
§
British+North+America+Act+(1+July+1867)+-->+BNA+act++
o
Within+a+decade+after+confederation,+Canada+became+second-largest+
country+in+the+world
§
With+addition+of+Manitoba+and+Northwest+Territories,+BC,+Yukon,+
Saskatchewan+and+Alberta,+Newfoundland+and+Nunavut+
§
Expansion+of+territorial+ extent
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada
International+boundary+-longest+international+border+in+the+
world
45th+parallel+:+border+between+lower+Canada+(Quebec)+and+
New+York+state+(including+Vermont)
(Canada++-US+border)
§
Adjustment+of+boundaries+
§
Aboriginal+rights
§
Evolution+of+national+boundaries+
o
Extended+boundaries+and+the+creation+of+new+provinces+and+territories+
§
Evolution+of+internal+boundaries+
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada,+continued
(1)+a+better+chance+for+the+political+survival+of+its+North+American+colonies+
against+the+growing+economic+and+military+strength+of+the+U.S.
o
(2)+an+improved+environment+for+British+investment,+especially+for+the+proposed+
trans-Canada+railway
o
(3)+a+reduction+in+British+expenditures+for+the+defence+of+its+North+American+
colonies+
o
John+A.+MacDonald+pushed+hard+for+a+united+BNA+b/c+it+would+have+a+larger+
domestic+market+for+its+growing+manufacturing+industries+and+a+stronger+
defensive+position+against+a+feared+American+invasion+
o
Doctrine+of+Manifest+Destiny
U.S.+gained+control+of+the+Indian+lands+of+the+Ohio+Basic,+with+
Britain+controlling+Quebec+lands+draining+into+the+St+Lawrence+River+
§
Treaty+of+Paris+
§
Wars+and+treaties+of+britain+and+U.S.+shaped+many+Canada+boundaries+
o
Stretched+along+the+pacific+coast+from+the+alaska+to+mexico
§
The+HBC+has+established+the+first+european+settlement+in+the+
region,+at+fort+Vancouver+and
(2)+the+company+exerted+control+over+the+land+where+the+
indians+trapped+fur-bearing+animals+
Based+on+two+factors
§
Britains+claim+to+the+oregon+territory+hinged+on+exploration+and+the+fur+
trade+
§
British-instituted+migration+organized+by+the+Hudson's+Bay+Company+
whereby+perhaps+as+many+as+1,000+settlers+from+Fort+Garry+
travelled+by+Horse-drawn+wagons+to+Fort+Vancouver+in+1841+to+
shore+up+the+British+claim+to+the+Oregon+territory+
§
Red+river+migration
§
Oregon+territory
o
National+boundaries
4+main+faultlines+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
They+have+evolved+over+time
§
They+pose+powerful+challenges+to+the+federal+government
§
Canada's+regional+geography+has+always+been+defined+by+its+faultlines+
o
Geographic+metaphor+for+tensions+or+rifts+that+exist+in+Canadian+society+
and+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
Faultlines
o
Established+high+tariffs+on+imported+goods+and+encouraged+a+home+
market+for+the+manufactures+of+the+core
§
National+Policy
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+Early+years
Regional:+the+CPR,+The+National+Policy
§
Political+representation+in+a+large,+uneven+country
§
Quebec's+place+in+Canada
§
The+place+of+Aboriginal+peoples+within+Canada
§
Immigrants+and+cultural+pluralism+
§
Key+concerns:
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+early+years,+continues
The+centralist/decentralist+ faultline+reflects+the+continuing+struggles+for+power+
b/w+the+political+and+economic+core+and+the+periphery
o
Centralists+argue+for+a+strong+central+government,+national+policies+that+exert+
political+dominance+over+provinces
o
Decentralist+argue+for+the+devolution+of+political+power,+so+that+policies+can+
better+reflect+regional+values+and+priorities+
o
This+is+often+seen+as+favoring+the+populated+core+of+southern+Ontario+and+
Quebec
o
Seen+by+Westerners+as+a+federal+tax+grab,+while+Central+Canada+saw+
it+as+a+means+to+strengthen+Canada+overall+
§
Increase+national+energy+security
§
Expand+Canadian+private+and+public+ownership+of+the+oil+industry+
§
Provide+Ottawa+with+a+larger+share+of+oil+revenues
§
Maintain+lower+oil+prices+in+central+canada+
§
The+national+energy+program+(1980+-4)
§
Equalization+and+transfer+payments+
§
Competing+perspectives+on+
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Yet+a+north+american+bailout+that+involved+the+US+gov't+and+US+auto+
industry
§
Good+for+one+region+and+is+good+for+the+rest+of+the+country
§
If+this+didn’t+happen+jobs+and+all+would+have+been+lost+in+Ontario,+which+
means+western+Canada+would+have+to+give+equalization+payments+to+
Ontario+
§
2009+financial+bailout+of+general+motors+and+chrysler+that+saved+to+automobile+
industry+in+Ontario.+
o
Example+of+core-periphery+model+(page+90)
The+most+critical+ role+of+the+federal+government+is+to+maintain+national+
unity
§
Offers+programs+that+transfer+funds+to+provinces+and+territories.+
This+is+designed+to+ensure+reasonable+degree+of+economic+equality+
§
Need+to+balance+
§
The+federal+role
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Considered+the+most+complex+faultline+due+to+the+tangled+historical+relations+
b/w+Aboriginal+peoples+and+European+settlers+
o
Clashes+over+land,+failed+policies,+marginalization,+etc.,+have+lead+to+deep+
distrust+and+divide+
o
Aboriginals+saying+if+the+bill+conservative+bill+passed,+legislation+would+strip+
away+their+rights+and+give+the+federal+gov't+too+much+control+over+the+education+
of+their+children
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline+(page+92)
Aboriginal+people+are+caught+in+a+dependency+r/s+w/+Ottawa,+face+unrelenting+
forms+of+racism,+and+are+often+isolated,+invisible+and+ignored+members+of+
society+
o
Response+to+the+Indian+residential+school+legacy+
§
Notice+of+the+need+of+healing+
§
Contributes+to+truth,+healing+and+reconciliation+
§
Truth+and+reconciliation+commission
§
Protest+movement+
§
Consisted+of+a+lot+of+political+actions+worldwide+
§
Movement+was+a+reaction+to+alleged+legislative+abuses+of+
indigenous+treaty+rights+by+Harper+
§
Idle+no+more+movement+
§
New+Path+forward?
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Aboriginal+title+has+existed+and+continues+to+exist,+and+that+all+
land+would+be+considered+aboriginal+land+until+ceded+by+
treaty+
Set+out+guidelines+for+european+settlement+of+aboriginal+territories+
in+north+america+
§
The+royal+proclamation+(1763)
§
A+decree+that+granted+land+to+the+iroquois+who+had+served+on+the+
British+side+during+the+American+Revolution
§
The+Haldimand+Grant+(1784)
§
Effect+of+isolating+Indian+tribes+from+the+rest+of+Canada+and+
stripping+them+of+the+power+to+govern+themselves+
§
The+indian+act+(1876)
§
Page+94+
§
Residential+schools+and+assimilation
§
Key+events+and+elements
o
Indians,+Metis,+and+Inuit
§
Status+(registered)+and+non-status+Indians
§
Treaty+Indians
§
Living+on+vs.+off+reserve
§
Identity+and+place+names
§
Defining+"aboriginal+peoples"+pg.+95
o
Collective+rights+that+stem+from+aboriginal+peoples+occupation+of+the+land+
before+contact
§
Aboriginal+rights
o
Treaties+set+aside+reserve+land,+held+collectively+ by+and+for+the+benefit+of+
the+band,+and+define+other+negotiated+rights+(benefits)
§
Modern+vs.+Historic+Treaties+
§
Treaty+rights
o
Comprehensive+land+claims+agreements,+north+has+several+
§
Modern+treaties
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Each+wave+having+a+distinct+impact+on+the+land+and+society
§
Canada+has+been+formed+by+waves+of+immigration
o
Imposed+a+way+of+life+and+set+of+institutions+that+marginalized+people
§
British+colonial-style+immigration+generated+tensions+between+existing+
population+and+newcomers+
o
When+immigrants+entering+canada+from+the+east+by+boat+generally+came
§
Now+houses+the+canadian+museum+of+immigration+
§
Pier+21
o
The+immigration+Faultline+(pg+103)
Western+settlement+put+a+British/Canadian+brand+on+the+landscape,+
marginalizing+earlier+occupants
§
The+making+of+Canada
o
Rectangular+appearance+of+rural+landholdings
§
Orientation+of+development+to+the+railways
§
Symbols+of+ethnic/religious+diversity+in+built+landscape+
§
Emerging+cultural+landscape+characterized+by:
o
The+immigration+Faultline+continued
Ottawa+did+not+inform+the+residents+of+the+Red+River+Colony+of+its+plans+
for+the+Hudson's+Bay+lands+not+did+the+government+signal+that+it+
recognized+local+landholdings+
§
b/c+land+survey+and+agriculture+plans+posed+a+threat+to+Metis+lands+
§
Pitted+against+the+existing+pop.+Of+Red+River+colony+against+Ottawa
§
Macdonald+authorized+Canada's+sovereignty+over+the+colony
§
Red+River+Rebellion+(105)
o
First+clash
Formula+was+simple:+a+small+annual+payment+and+land+for+the+exclusive+
use+of+indians+(reserves)
§
Indians+asking+for+tools+for+farming,+medicine+chest
§
Total+of+7+treaties+
§
Making+treaty
o
2nd+clash
Treaty+provisions+were+cut+by+federal+officials+
o
Riel+tried+and+helped+to+bring+back+the+provisions.
o
He+wrote+a+petition+to+ottawa+for+Indians,+Metis+and+whites+
o
3rd+clash
Conformed+british+hegemony+over+french-canadian+majority+and+its+
control+over+new+france
§
Origin+of+french/english+struggles+dates+back+to+conquest+and+treaty+of+paris
o
Canada+emerged+as+a+british+dominated+society+with+a+large+French+population+
concentrated+in+quebec+
o
A+partnership+b/w+french+and+english
§
A+collection+of+10+provinces
§
One+country+two+visions+(114)
o
French+canadians,+new+immigrants+and+aboriginal+peoples+
§
Accommodating+demands+from+diff+groups+and+regions
§
Opportunites+for+compromise?
o
Seperatism+grew
§
Resurgance+of+quebec+nationalism+took+place+in+quebec+and+gained+political+
momentum+during+the+quiet+revolution+of+the+early+60's
o
Seperatism+has+lost+its+spark
§
But+quebec+is+being+recognized+as+a+"distinct+cultural+group"+or+nation+
within+canada
§
In+2006,+quebecois+received+recognition+as+a+nation+within+Canada+
§
Moving+forwards+after+1995
o
The+french/english+faultline+(110)
se
§
Ensured+the+continuation+of+the+aristocratic+seigneruria;+landholding+system+and+
guaranteed+religious+freedom+for+the+colony+roman+catholic+majority+
o
Quebec+act+1774
History+and+geography+explain+the+nature+and+complexity+of+contemporary+
Canada
o
Canada+is+both+a+young+and+an+old+country
o
Complexities+are+reflected+in+its+four+faultlines
o
Canada+evolved+from+a+"hard"+country+to+a+"soft"+country+
o
SUMMARY
Module'3'notes'
Friday,+June+24,+2016
9:06+PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Canada’s'Historical'Geography'
Understanding+of+the+territorial+evolution+of+Canada,+4+major+faultlines+are+
considered.+
o
First+people,+second+people,+third+people,+and+faultlines+are+introduced
o
Historical+development+of+Canada+
o
Old:+1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+
bridge+40,000+years+ago+
§
Young:+Canada+became+a+formal+nation+in+1867+with+the+passing+of+the+
British+North+America+Act.+
§
How+Canada+is+both+young+and+old+
o
The+arrival+of+the+first+people+in+North+America
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+France+and+England
§
The+influx+of+people+from+Central+Europe+and+czarist+Russia
§
3+influential+events:+
o
Key+concepts:
English+and+french+speakers
o
Centralists+and+decentralists
o
New+and+old+canadians+
o
Aboriginal+and+non-aboriginal+canadians
o
4+major+faultlines:
1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+bridge+
40,000+years+ago+
o
Beringia+-product+of+the+last+ice+advance+when+so+much+water+was+contained+in+
the+continental+glaciers+ that+the+sea+level+ dropped,+thus+exposing+the+ocean+
bottom+b/w+Siberia+and+Alaska
o
Old+world+hunters+who+had+beenblocked+from+proceeding+
south+by+the+ice+sheet+were+now+able+to+migrate+south
The+corridor+theory
§
Old+world+hunters+reaching+interior+of+N.A.+before+ice+sheet+
melt,+by+island+hopping+along+the+edge+of+the+Cordilera+ice+
sheet+until+they+reached+the+unglaciated+US+Pacific+coast
The+sea+route+theory+
§
Two+routes+by+which+first+peoples+are+thought+to+have+moved+through+
N.A.+
§
Two+theories+of+diffusion+in+North+America:+slide+6
o
First+peoples:+1ST+KEY+EVENT
Descendants+of+the+old+world+hunters
o
Folsom+or+plano+-developed+a+variety+of+unfluted+stone+points+with+stems+
for+attachment+to+spear+shafts+
§
Weapons+more+suitable+
§
Later+Paleo-indians+
o
Common+set+of+natural+conditions+that+resulted+in+similar+plants+and+
animals
§
Inhabitants+who+used+a+common+set+of+hunting,+fishing+and+food-
gathering+techniques+and+tools+
§
Culture+areas
o
Algonquian-speaking+indians+had+to+hunt+big-game+animals+(caribou)+
o
Paleo-indians+(pg.+69)
Melting+of+the+ice+sheets+that+covered+this+physiographic+region+
§
Emergence+of+a+hunting+technique+that+would+enable+people+to+live+
In+an+arctic+environment
§
2+ways+for+ppl+to+occupy+the+arctic+lands
§
Arctic+migration
o
Were+almost+500,000+Indians+when+this+happened
§
Population+declined+due+to+loss+of+hunting+grounds+to+Europeans+settlers,+
spread+of+new+diseases+and+conflicts.
§
Europeans+considered+the+new+world+terra+nullius+or+empty+lands,+even+though+
old+world+hunters+were+already+there+
o
With+arrival+of+European+settlers.+French+and+British+-the+aboriginal/non-
aboriginal+fault-line+began+to+develop
o
Initial+contacts:
Eastern+Woodlands
o
Eastern+Subarctic
o
Western+Subarctic
o
Arctic
o
Plains
o
Plateau
o
Northwest+Coast
o
Culture+regions:+7+in+present-day+Canada+-->+map:+slide+9
Which+was+the+establishment+and+development+of+New+France+
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+the+French+and+the+British+was+the+second+major+
development+in+Canada's+early+history++(2ND+KEY+EVENT)
o
Led+to+a+demographic+shift+from+a+French-Canadian+majority+to+an+English-
speaking+majority.+
§
British+conquest+of+New+France
o
The+first+permanent+settlement+in+Canada,+founded+in+1608+
§
Quebec+City+
o
The+second+people
loyalists+fleeing+American+War+of+Independence+(1775+-83)
§
Threats+of+Americas+manifest+destiny,+the+way+of+1812,+and+American+and+
British+expansion
§
Following+british+conquest+of+New+France,+there+was+a+first+major+wave+of+
British+immigrants+
o
Second+major+wave+of+British+and+Irish+immigrants+occurred+in+first+half+of+19th+
century+
o
By+1860's+Canadians+ethnic+character+varied+by+region
o
The+two+waves+greatly+changed+Canada,+the+demographic+balance+of+power+
from+a+french-canadian+majority+to+an+english-speaking+one+
o
The+second+people,+continued
Upper+and+Lower+Canada+(Ontario+and+Quebec),+Nova+Scotia+
and+New+Brunswick
Joining+of+4+colonies:
§
Britain:+essential+to+withstand+American+annexation
Quebec:+concern+for+language,+religion,+culture
Maritimes:+economy+orientated+to+sea+not+Central+Canada+
Varying+perspectives+on+this+
§
Confederation+(1867)+with+the+British+North+America+Act
§
3RD+KEY+EVENT
o
The+nature+of+confederation+was+such+that+provincial+powers+were+shared+
equally
§
The+british+formed+the+majority+of+the+pop.+In+three+of+the+four+provinces,+
thereby+dominating+the+political+affairs+of+those+provinces
§
The+british,+while+a+minority+within+Quebec,+were+the+dominant+buisness+
group.+
§
In+English+Canada,+the+notion+of+equal+provinces+grew+out+of+the+following+
factors:
o
The+second+people,+continued
French+vision:+confederation+about+two+founding+peoples+(French+and+
English+
§
British+vision:+collection+of+equal+provinces+in+the+context+of+British+
dominance+
§
Difference+in+vision+in+confederation
o
Separation+of+British+and+French+represents+challenge+to+Canadian+national+
unity
o
The+second+people,+continued
Old+and+new+Canadians+fault+line+around+turn+of+20th+century
o
3rd+group+of+Immigrants,+not+british+or+French
o
Ottawa+obtaining+land+of+Hudsons+Bay+Co+(1870)
§
Dominon+Lands+Act+(1872)
§
Completion+of+CPR+(1885)
§
Therefore,+early+part+of+20th+century,+settlement+of+western+Canada+followed+3+
important+events
o
To+serve+as+a+counter+threat+of+American+expansion
§
A+desire+to+establish+agricultural+(grain)+economy+
§
Turned+attention+to+ppl+of+central+Europe,+Scandinavia+and+czarist+Russia
§
Settlement+of+western+Canada+important+because:
o
The+third+people
To+lure+people+from+Britain+and+the+U.S.+
§
SIFTON'S+IMMIGRATION+POLICY changed+the+face+of+Canada
§
Cultural/linguistic+difference+later+became+powerful+force+for+
multiculturalism+and+pluralism+in+English-speaking+Canada+
§
Implications+for+French/English+character+of+the+country?+For+first+Nations?+
o
The+third+people,+continued+
Ontario,+Quebec,+Nova+Scotia+and+New+Brunswick+
§
United+4+colonies+into+the+Dominion+of+Canada
§
British+North+America+Act+(1+July+1867)+-->+BNA+act++
o
Within+a+decade+after+confederation,+Canada+became+second-largest+
country+in+the+world
§
With+addition+of+Manitoba+and+Northwest+Territories,+BC,+Yukon,+
Saskatchewan+and+Alberta,+Newfoundland+and+Nunavut+
§
Expansion+of+territorial+ extent
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada
International+boundary+-longest+international+border+in+the+
world
45th+parallel+:+border+between+lower+Canada+(Quebec)+and+
New+York+state+(including+Vermont)
(Canada++-US+border)
§
Adjustment+of+boundaries+
§
Aboriginal+rights
§
Evolution+of+national+boundaries+
o
Extended+boundaries+and+the+creation+of+new+provinces+and+territories+
§
Evolution+of+internal+boundaries+
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada,+continued
(1)+a+better+chance+for+the+political+survival+of+its+North+American+colonies+
against+the+growing+economic+and+military+strength+of+the+U.S.
o
(2)+an+improved+environment+for+British+investment,+especially+for+the+proposed+
trans-Canada+railway
o
(3)+a+reduction+in+British+expenditures+for+the+defence+of+its+North+American+
colonies+
o
John+A.+MacDonald+pushed+hard+for+a+united+BNA+b/c+it+would+have+a+larger+
domestic+market+for+its+growing+manufacturing+industries+and+a+stronger+
defensive+position+against+a+feared+American+invasion+
o
Doctrine+of+Manifest+Destiny
U.S.+gained+control+of+the+Indian+lands+of+the+Ohio+Basic,+with+
Britain+controlling+Quebec+lands+draining+into+the+St+Lawrence+River+
§
Treaty+of+Paris+
§
Wars+and+treaties+of+britain+and+U.S.+shaped+many+Canada+boundaries+
o
Stretched+along+the+pacific+coast+from+the+alaska+to+mexico
§
The+HBC+has+established+the+first+european+settlement+in+the+
region,+at+fort+Vancouver+and
(2)+the+company+exerted+control+over+the+land+where+the+
indians+trapped+fur-bearing+animals+
Based+on+two+factors
§
Britains+claim+to+the+oregon+territory+hinged+on+exploration+and+the+fur+
trade+
§
British-instituted+migration+organized+by+the+Hudson's+Bay+Company+
whereby+perhaps+as+many+as+1,000+settlers+from+Fort+Garry+
travelled+by+Horse-drawn+wagons+to+Fort+Vancouver+in+1841+to+
shore+up+the+British+claim+to+the+Oregon+territory+
§
Red+river+migration
§
Oregon+territory
o
National+boundaries
4+main+faultlines+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
They+have+evolved+over+time
§
They+pose+powerful+challenges+to+the+federal+government
§
Canada's+regional+geography+has+always+been+defined+by+its+faultlines+
o
Geographic+metaphor+for+tensions+or+rifts+that+exist+in+Canadian+society+
and+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
Faultlines
o
Established+high+tariffs+on+imported+goods+and+encouraged+a+home+
market+for+the+manufactures+of+the+core
§
National+Policy
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+Early+years
Regional:+the+CPR,+The+National+Policy
§
Political+representation+in+a+large,+uneven+country
§
Quebec's+place+in+Canada
§
The+place+of+Aboriginal+peoples+within+Canada
§
Immigrants+and+cultural+pluralism+
§
Key+concerns:
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+early+years,+continues
The+centralist/decentralist+ faultline+reflects+the+continuing+struggles+for+power+
b/w+the+political+and+economic+core+and+the+periphery
o
Centralists+argue+for+a+strong+central+government,+national+policies+that+exert+
political+dominance+over+provinces
o
Decentralist+argue+for+the+devolution+of+political+power,+so+that+policies+can+
better+reflect+regional+values+and+priorities+
o
This+is+often+seen+as+favoring+the+populated+core+of+southern+Ontario+and+
Quebec
o
Seen+by+Westerners+as+a+federal+tax+grab,+while+Central+Canada+saw+
it+as+a+means+to+strengthen+Canada+overall+
§
Increase+national+energy+security
§
Expand+Canadian+private+and+public+ownership+of+the+oil+industry+
§
Provide+Ottawa+with+a+larger+share+of+oil+revenues
§
Maintain+lower+oil+prices+in+central+canada+
§
The+national+energy+program+(1980+-4)
§
Equalization+and+transfer+payments+
§
Competing+perspectives+on+
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Yet+a+north+american+bailout+that+involved+the+US+gov't+and+US+auto+
industry
§
Good+for+one+region+and+is+good+for+the+rest+of+the+country
§
If+this+didn’t+happen+jobs+and+all+would+have+been+lost+in+Ontario,+which+
means+western+Canada+would+have+to+give+equalization+payments+to+
Ontario+
§
2009+financial+bailout+of+general+motors+and+chrysler+that+saved+to+automobile+
industry+in+Ontario.+
o
Example+of+core-periphery+model+(page+90)
The+most+critical+ role+of+the+federal+government+is+to+maintain+national+
unity
§
Offers+programs+that+transfer+funds+to+provinces+and+territories.+
This+is+designed+to+ensure+reasonable+degree+of+economic+equality+
§
Need+to+balance+
§
The+federal+role
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Considered+the+most+complex+faultline+due+to+the+tangled+historical+relations+
b/w+Aboriginal+peoples+and+European+settlers+
o
Clashes+over+land,+failed+policies,+marginalization,+etc.,+have+lead+to+deep+
distrust+and+divide+
o
Aboriginals+saying+if+the+bill+conservative+bill+passed,+legislation+would+strip+
away+their+rights+and+give+the+federal+gov't+too+much+control+over+the+education+
of+their+children
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline+(page+92)
Aboriginal+people+are+caught+in+a+dependency+r/s+w/+Ottawa,+face+unrelenting+
forms+of+racism,+and+are+often+isolated,+invisible+and+ignored+members+of+
society+
o
Response+to+the+Indian+residential+school+legacy+
§
Notice+of+the+need+of+healing+
§
Contributes+to+truth,+healing+and+reconciliation+
§
Truth+and+reconciliation+commission
§
Protest+movement+
§
Consisted+of+a+lot+of+political+actions+worldwide+
§
Movement+was+a+reaction+to+alleged+legislative+abuses+of+
indigenous+treaty+rights+by+Harper+
§
Idle+no+more+movement+
§
New+Path+forward?
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Aboriginal+title+has+existed+and+continues+to+exist,+and+that+all+
land+would+be+considered+aboriginal+land+until+ceded+by+
treaty+
Set+out+guidelines+for+european+settlement+of+aboriginal+territories+
in+north+america+
§
The+royal+proclamation+(1763)
§
A+decree+that+granted+land+to+the+iroquois+who+had+served+on+the+
British+side+during+the+American+Revolution
§
The+Haldimand+Grant+(1784)
§
Effect+of+isolating+Indian+tribes+from+the+rest+of+Canada+and+
stripping+them+of+the+power+to+govern+themselves+
§
The+indian+act+(1876)
§
Page+94+
§
Residential+schools+and+assimilation
§
Key+events+and+elements
o
Indians,+Metis,+and+Inuit
§
Status+(registered)+and+non-status+Indians
§
Treaty+Indians
§
Living+on+vs.+off+reserve
§
Identity+and+place+names
§
Defining+"aboriginal+peoples"+pg.+95
o
Collective+rights+that+stem+from+aboriginal+peoples+occupation+of+the+land+
before+contact
§
Aboriginal+rights
o
Treaties+set+aside+reserve+land,+held+collectively+ by+and+for+the+benefit+of+
the+band,+and+define+other+negotiated+rights+(benefits)
§
Modern+vs.+Historic+Treaties+
§
Treaty+rights
o
Comprehensive+land+claims+agreements,+north+has+several+
§
Modern+treaties
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Each+wave+having+a+distinct+impact+on+the+land+and+society
§
Canada+has+been+formed+by+waves+of+immigration
o
Imposed+a+way+of+life+and+set+of+institutions+that+marginalized+people
§
British+colonial-style+immigration+generated+tensions+between+existing+
population+and+newcomers+
o
When+immigrants+entering+canada+from+the+east+by+boat+generally+came
§
Now+houses+the+canadian+museum+of+immigration+
§
Pier+21
o
The+immigration+Faultline+(pg+103)
Western+settlement+put+a+British/Canadian+brand+on+the+landscape,+
marginalizing+earlier+occupants
§
The+making+of+Canada
o
Rectangular+appearance+of+rural+landholdings
§
Orientation+of+development+to+the+railways
§
Symbols+of+ethnic/religious+diversity+in+built+landscape+
§
Emerging+cultural+landscape+characterized+by:
o
The+immigration+Faultline+continued
Ottawa+did+not+inform+the+residents+of+the+Red+River+Colony+of+its+plans+
for+the+Hudson's+Bay+lands+not+did+the+government+signal+that+it+
recognized+local+landholdings+
§
b/c+land+survey+and+agriculture+plans+posed+a+threat+to+Metis+lands+
§
Pitted+against+the+existing+pop.+Of+Red+River+colony+against+Ottawa
§
Macdonald+authorized+Canada's+sovereignty+over+the+colony
§
Red+River+Rebellion+(105)
o
First+clash
Formula+was+simple:+a+small+annual+payment+and+land+for+the+exclusive+
use+of+indians+(reserves)
§
Indians+asking+for+tools+for+farming,+medicine+chest
§
Total+of+7+treaties+
§
Making+treaty
o
2nd+clash
Treaty+provisions+were+cut+by+federal+officials+
o
Riel+tried+and+helped+to+bring+back+the+provisions.
o
He+wrote+a+petition+to+ottawa+for+Indians,+Metis+and+whites+
o
3rd+clash
Conformed+british+hegemony+over+french-canadian+majority+and+its+
control+over+new+france
§
Origin+of+french/english+struggles+dates+back+to+conquest+and+treaty+of+paris
o
Canada+emerged+as+a+british+dominated+society+with+a+large+French+population+
concentrated+in+quebec+
o
A+partnership+b/w+french+and+english
§
A+collection+of+10+provinces
§
One+country+two+visions+(114)
o
French+canadians,+new+immigrants+and+aboriginal+peoples+
§
Accommodating+demands+from+diff+groups+and+regions
§
Opportunites+for+compromise?
o
Seperatism+grew
§
Resurgance+of+quebec+nationalism+took+place+in+quebec+and+gained+political+
momentum+during+the+quiet+revolution+of+the+early+60's
o
Seperatism+has+lost+its+spark
§
But+quebec+is+being+recognized+as+a+"distinct+cultural+group"+or+nation+
within+canada
§
In+2006,+quebecois+received+recognition+as+a+nation+within+Canada+
§
Moving+forwards+after+1995
o
The+french/english+faultline+(110)
se
§
Ensured+the+continuation+of+the+aristocratic+seigneruria;+landholding+system+and+
guaranteed+religious+freedom+for+the+colony+roman+catholic+majority+
o
Quebec+act+1774
History+and+geography+explain+the+nature+and+complexity+of+contemporary+
Canada
o
Canada+is+both+a+young+and+an+old+country
o
Complexities+are+reflected+in+its+four+faultlines
o
Canada+evolved+from+a+"hard"+country+to+a+"soft"+country+
o
SUMMARY
Module'3'notes'
Friday,+June+24,+2016 9:06+PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Canada’s'Historical'Geography'
Understanding+of+the+territorial+evolution+of+Canada,+4+major+faultlines+are+
considered.+
o
First+people,+second+people,+third+people,+and+faultlines+are+introduced
o
Historical+development+of+Canada+
o
Old:+1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+
bridge+40,000+years+ago+
§
Young:+Canada+became+a+formal+nation+in+1867+with+the+passing+of+the+
British+North+America+Act.+
§
How+Canada+is+both+young+and+old+
o
The+arrival+of+the+first+people+in+North+America
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+France+and+England
§
The+influx+of+people+from+Central+Europe+and+czarist+Russia
§
3+influential+events:+
o
Key+concepts:
English+and+french+speakers
o
Centralists+and+decentralists
o
New+and+old+canadians+
o
Aboriginal+and+non-aboriginal+canadians
o
4+major+faultlines:
1st people+were+old+world+hunters+who+arrived+via+the+Beringia+land+bridge+
40,000+years+ago+
o
Beringia+-product+of+the+last+ice+advance+when+so+much+water+was+contained+in+
the+continental+glaciers+ that+the+sea+level+ dropped,+thus+exposing+the+ocean+
bottom+b/w+Siberia+and+Alaska
o
Old+world+hunters+who+had+beenblocked+from+proceeding+
south+by+the+ice+sheet+were+now+able+to+migrate+south
The+corridor+theory
§
Old+world+hunters+reaching+interior+of+N.A.+before+ice+sheet+
melt,+by+island+hopping+along+the+edge+of+the+Cordilera+ice+
sheet+until+they+reached+the+unglaciated+US+Pacific+coast
The+sea+route+theory+
§
Two+routes+by+which+first+peoples+are+thought+to+have+moved+through+
N.A.+
§
Two+theories+of+diffusion+in+North+America:+slide+6
o
First+peoples:+1ST+KEY+EVENT
Descendants+of+the+old+world+hunters
o
Folsom+or+plano+-developed+a+variety+of+unfluted+stone+points+with+stems+
for+attachment+to+spear+shafts+
§
Weapons+more+suitable+
§
Later+Paleo-indians+
o
Common+set+of+natural+conditions+that+resulted+in+similar+plants+and+
animals
§
Inhabitants+who+used+a+common+set+of+hunting,+fishing+and+food-
gathering+techniques+and+tools+
§
Culture+areas
o
Algonquian-speaking+indians+had+to+hunt+big-game+animals+(caribou)+
o
Paleo-indians+(pg.+69)
Melting+of+the+ice+sheets+that+covered+this+physiographic+region+
§
Emergence+of+a+hunting+technique+that+would+enable+people+to+live+
In+an+arctic+environment
§
2+ways+for+ppl+to+occupy+the+arctic+lands
§
Arctic+migration
o
Were+almost+500,000+Indians+when+this+happened
§
Population+declined+due+to+loss+of+hunting+grounds+to+Europeans+settlers,+
spread+of+new+diseases+and+conflicts.
§
Europeans+considered+the+new+world+terra+nullius+or+empty+lands,+even+though+
old+world+hunters+were+already+there+
o
With+arrival+of+European+settlers.+French+and+British+-the+aboriginal/non-
aboriginal+fault-line+began+to+develop
o
Initial+contacts:
Eastern+Woodlands
o
Eastern+Subarctic
o
Western+Subarctic
o
Arctic
o
Plains
o
Plateau
o
Northwest+Coast
o
Culture+regions:+7+in+present-day+Canada+-->+map:+slide+9
Which+was+the+establishment+and+development+of+New+France+
§
Colonization+of+N.A.+by+the+French+and+the+British+was+the+second+major+
development+in+Canada's+early+history++(2ND+KEY+EVENT)
o
Led+to+a+demographic+shift+from+a+French-Canadian+majority+to+an+English-
speaking+majority.+
§
British+conquest+of+New+France
o
The+first+permanent+settlement+in+Canada,+founded+in+1608+
§
Quebec+City+
o
The+second+people
loyalists+fleeing+American+War+of+Independence+(1775+-83)
§
Threats+of+Americas+manifest+destiny,+the+way+of+1812,+and+American+and+
British+expansion
§
Following+british+conquest+of+New+France,+there+was+a+first+major+wave+of+
British+immigrants+
o
Second+major+wave+of+British+and+Irish+immigrants+occurred+in+first+half+of+19th+
century+
o
By+1860's+Canadians+ethnic+character+varied+by+region
o
The+two+waves+greatly+changed+Canada,+the+demographic+balance+of+power+
from+a+french-canadian+majority+to+an+english-speaking+one+
o
The+second+people,+continued
Upper+and+Lower+Canada+(Ontario+and+Quebec),+Nova+Scotia+
and+New+Brunswick
Joining+of+4+colonies:
§
Britain:+essential+to+withstand+American+annexation
Quebec:+concern+for+language,+religion,+culture
Maritimes:+economy+orientated+to+sea+not+Central+Canada+
Varying+perspectives+on+this+
§
Confederation+(1867)+with+the+British+North+America+Act
§
3RD+KEY+EVENT
o
The+nature+of+confederation+was+such+that+provincial+powers+were+shared+
equally
§
The+british+formed+the+majority+of+the+pop.+In+three+of+the+four+provinces,+
thereby+dominating+the+political+affairs+of+those+provinces
§
The+british,+while+a+minority+within+Quebec,+were+the+dominant+buisness+
group.+
§
In+English+Canada,+the+notion+of+equal+provinces+grew+out+of+the+following+
factors:
o
The+second+people,+continued
French+vision:+confederation+about+two+founding+peoples+(French+and+
English+
§
British+vision:+collection+of+equal+provinces+in+the+context+of+British+
dominance+
§
Difference+in+vision+in+confederation
o
Separation+of+British+and+French+represents+challenge+to+Canadian+national+
unity
o
The+second+people,+continued
Old+and+new+Canadians+fault+line+around+turn+of+20th+century
o
3rd+group+of+Immigrants,+not+british+or+French
o
Ottawa+obtaining+land+of+Hudsons+Bay+Co+(1870)
§
Dominon+Lands+Act+(1872)
§
Completion+of+CPR+(1885)
§
Therefore,+early+part+of+20th+century,+settlement+of+western+Canada+followed+3+
important+events
o
To+serve+as+a+counter+threat+of+American+expansion
§
A+desire+to+establish+agricultural+(grain)+economy+
§
Turned+attention+to+ppl+of+central+Europe,+Scandinavia+and+czarist+Russia
§
Settlement+of+western+Canada+important+because:
o
The+third+people
To+lure+people+from+Britain+and+the+U.S.+
§
SIFTON'S+IMMIGRATION+POLICY changed+the+face+of+Canada
§
Cultural/linguistic+difference+later+became+powerful+force+for+
multiculturalism+and+pluralism+in+English-speaking+Canada+
§
Implications+for+French/English+character+of+the+country?+For+first+Nations?+
o
The+third+people,+continued+
Ontario,+Quebec,+Nova+Scotia+and+New+Brunswick+
§
United+4+colonies+into+the+Dominion+of+Canada
§
British+North+America+Act+(1+July+1867)+-->+BNA+act++
o
Within+a+decade+after+confederation,+Canada+became+second-largest+
country+in+the+world
§
With+addition+of+Manitoba+and+Northwest+Territories,+BC,+Yukon,+
Saskatchewan+and+Alberta,+Newfoundland+and+Nunavut+
§
Expansion+of+territorial+ extent
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada
International+boundary+-longest+international+border+in+the+
world
45th+parallel+:+border+between+lower+Canada+(Quebec)+and+
New+York+state+(including+Vermont)
(Canada++-US+border)
§
Adjustment+of+boundaries+
§
Aboriginal+rights
§
Evolution+of+national+boundaries+
o
Extended+boundaries+and+the+creation+of+new+provinces+and+territories+
§
Evolution+of+internal+boundaries+
o
Territorial+ Evolution+of+Canada,+continued
(1)+a+better+chance+for+the+political+survival+of+its+North+American+colonies+
against+the+growing+economic+and+military+strength+of+the+U.S.
o
(2)+an+improved+environment+for+British+investment,+especially+for+the+proposed+
trans-Canada+railway
o
(3)+a+reduction+in+British+expenditures+for+the+defence+of+its+North+American+
colonies+
o
John+A.+MacDonald+pushed+hard+for+a+united+BNA+b/c+it+would+have+a+larger+
domestic+market+for+its+growing+manufacturing+industries+and+a+stronger+
defensive+position+against+a+feared+American+invasion+
o
Doctrine+of+Manifest+Destiny
U.S.+gained+control+of+the+Indian+lands+of+the+Ohio+Basic,+with+
Britain+controlling+Quebec+lands+draining+into+the+St+Lawrence+River+
§
Treaty+of+Paris+
§
Wars+and+treaties+of+britain+and+U.S.+shaped+many+Canada+boundaries+
o
Stretched+along+the+pacific+coast+from+the+alaska+to+mexico
§
The+HBC+has+established+the+first+european+settlement+in+the+
region,+at+fort+Vancouver+and
(2)+the+company+exerted+control+over+the+land+where+the+
indians+trapped+fur-bearing+animals+
Based+on+two+factors
§
Britains+claim+to+the+oregon+territory+hinged+on+exploration+and+the+fur+
trade+
§
British-instituted+migration+organized+by+the+Hudson's+Bay+Company+
whereby+perhaps+as+many+as+1,000+settlers+from+Fort+Garry+
travelled+by+Horse-drawn+wagons+to+Fort+Vancouver+in+1841+to+
shore+up+the+British+claim+to+the+Oregon+territory+
§
Red+river+migration
§
Oregon+territory
o
National+boundaries
4+main+faultlines+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
They+have+evolved+over+time
§
They+pose+powerful+challenges+to+the+federal+government
§
Canada's+regional+geography+has+always+been+defined+by+its+faultlines+
o
Geographic+metaphor+for+tensions+or+rifts+that+exist+in+Canadian+society+
and+have+roots+in+Canada's+historical+geography+
§
Faultlines
o
Established+high+tariffs+on+imported+goods+and+encouraged+a+home+
market+for+the+manufactures+of+the+core
§
National+Policy
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+Early+years
Regional:+the+CPR,+The+National+Policy
§
Political+representation+in+a+large,+uneven+country
§
Quebec's+place+in+Canada
§
The+place+of+Aboriginal+peoples+within+Canada
§
Immigrants+and+cultural+pluralism+
§
Key+concerns:
o
Faultlines+in+Canada's+early+years,+continues
The+centralist/decentralist+ faultline+reflects+the+continuing+struggles+for+power+
b/w+the+political+and+economic+core+and+the+periphery
o
Centralists+argue+for+a+strong+central+government,+national+policies+that+exert+
political+dominance+over+provinces
o
Decentralist+argue+for+the+devolution+of+political+power,+so+that+policies+can+
better+reflect+regional+values+and+priorities+
o
This+is+often+seen+as+favoring+the+populated+core+of+southern+Ontario+and+
Quebec
o
Seen+by+Westerners+as+a+federal+tax+grab,+while+Central+Canada+saw+
it+as+a+means+to+strengthen+Canada+overall+
§
Increase+national+energy+security
§
Expand+Canadian+private+and+public+ownership+of+the+oil+industry+
§
Provide+Ottawa+with+a+larger+share+of+oil+revenues
§
Maintain+lower+oil+prices+in+central+canada+
§
The+national+energy+program+(1980+-4)
§
Equalization+and+transfer+payments+
§
Competing+perspectives+on+
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Yet+a+north+american+bailout+that+involved+the+US+gov't+and+US+auto+
industry
§
Good+for+one+region+and+is+good+for+the+rest+of+the+country
§
If+this+didn’t+happen+jobs+and+all+would+have+been+lost+in+Ontario,+which+
means+western+Canada+would+have+to+give+equalization+payments+to+
Ontario+
§
2009+financial+bailout+of+general+motors+and+chrysler+that+saved+to+automobile+
industry+in+Ontario.+
o
Example+of+core-periphery+model+(page+90)
The+most+critical+ role+of+the+federal+government+is+to+maintain+national+
unity
§
Offers+programs+that+transfer+funds+to+provinces+and+territories.+
This+is+designed+to+ensure+reasonable+degree+of+economic+equality+
§
Need+to+balance+
§
The+federal+role
o
The+centralist/Decentralist+ Faultline
Considered+the+most+complex+faultline+due+to+the+tangled+historical+relations+
b/w+Aboriginal+peoples+and+European+settlers+
o
Clashes+over+land,+failed+policies,+marginalization,+etc.,+have+lead+to+deep+
distrust+and+divide+
o
Aboriginals+saying+if+the+bill+conservative+bill+passed,+legislation+would+strip+
away+their+rights+and+give+the+federal+gov't+too+much+control+over+the+education+
of+their+children
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline+(page+92)
Aboriginal+people+are+caught+in+a+dependency+r/s+w/+Ottawa,+face+unrelenting+
forms+of+racism,+and+are+often+isolated,+invisible+and+ignored+members+of+
society+
o
Response+to+the+Indian+residential+school+legacy+
§
Notice+of+the+need+of+healing+
§
Contributes+to+truth,+healing+and+reconciliation+
§
Truth+and+reconciliation+commission
§
Protest+movement+
§
Consisted+of+a+lot+of+political+actions+worldwide+
§
Movement+was+a+reaction+to+alleged+legislative+abuses+of+
indigenous+treaty+rights+by+Harper+
§
Idle+no+more+movement+
§
New+Path+forward?
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Aboriginal+title+has+existed+and+continues+to+exist,+and+that+all+
land+would+be+considered+aboriginal+land+until+ceded+by+
treaty+
Set+out+guidelines+for+european+settlement+of+aboriginal+territories+
in+north+america+
§
The+royal+proclamation+(1763)
§
A+decree+that+granted+land+to+the+iroquois+who+had+served+on+the+
British+side+during+the+American+Revolution
§
The+Haldimand+Grant+(1784)
§
Effect+of+isolating+Indian+tribes+from+the+rest+of+Canada+and+
stripping+them+of+the+power+to+govern+themselves+
§
The+indian+act+(1876)
§
Page+94+
§
Residential+schools+and+assimilation
§
Key+events+and+elements
o
Indians,+Metis,+and+Inuit
§
Status+(registered)+and+non-status+Indians
§
Treaty+Indians
§
Living+on+vs.+off+reserve
§
Identity+and+place+names
§
Defining+"aboriginal+peoples"+pg.+95
o
Collective+rights+that+stem+from+aboriginal+peoples+occupation+of+the+land+
before+contact
§
Aboriginal+rights
o
Treaties+set+aside+reserve+land,+held+collectively+ by+and+for+the+benefit+of+
the+band,+and+define+other+negotiated+rights+(benefits)
§
Modern+vs.+Historic+Treaties+
§
Treaty+rights
o
Comprehensive+land+claims+agreements,+north+has+several+
§
Modern+treaties
o
The+Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal+Faultline,+continued
Each+wave+having+a+distinct+impact+on+the+land+and+society
§
Canada+has+been+formed+by+waves+of+immigration
o
Imposed+a+way+of+life+and+set+of+institutions+that+marginalized+people
§
British+colonial-style+immigration+generated+tensions+between+existing+
population+and+newcomers+
o
When+immigrants+entering+canada+from+the+east+by+boat+generally+came
§
Now+houses+the+canadian+museum+of+immigration+
§
Pier+21
o
The+immigration+Faultline+(pg+103)
Western+settlement+put+a+British/Canadian+brand+on+the+landscape,+
marginalizing+earlier+occupants
§
The+making+of+Canada
o
Rectangular+appearance+of+rural+landholdings
§
Orientation+of+development+to+the+railways
§
Symbols+of+ethnic/religious+diversity+in+built+landscape+
§
Emerging+cultural+landscape+characterized+by:
o
The+immigration+Faultline+continued
Ottawa+did+not+inform+the+residents+of+the+Red+River+Colony+of+its+plans+
for+the+Hudson's+Bay+lands+not+did+the+government+signal+that+it+
recognized+local+landholdings+
§
b/c+land+survey+and+agriculture+plans+posed+a+threat+to+Metis+lands+
§
Pitted+against+the+existing+pop.+Of+Red+River+colony+against+Ottawa
§
Macdonald+authorized+Canada's+sovereignty+over+the+colony
§
Red+River+Rebellion+(105)
o
First+clash
Formula+was+simple:+a+small+annual+payment+and+land+for+the+exclusive+
use+of+indians+(reserves)
§
Indians+asking+for+tools+for+farming,+medicine+chest
§
Total+of+7+treaties+
§
Making+treaty
o
2nd+clash
Treaty+provisions+were+cut+by+federal+officials+
o
Riel+tried+and+helped+to+bring+back+the+provisions.
o
He+wrote+a+petition+to+ottawa+for+Indians,+Metis+and+whites+
o
3rd+clash
Conformed+british+hegemony+over+french-canadian+majority+and+its+
control+over+new+france
§
Origin+of+french/english+struggles+dates+back+to+conquest+and+treaty+of+paris
o
Canada+emerged+as+a+british+dominated+society+with+a+large+French+population+
concentrated+in+quebec+
o
A+partnership+b/w+french+and+english
§
A+collection+of+10+provinces
§
One+country+two+visions+(114)
o
French+canadians,+new+immigrants+and+aboriginal+peoples+
§
Accommodating+demands+from+diff+groups+and+regions
§
Opportunites+for+compromise?
o
Seperatism+grew
§
Resurgance+of+quebec+nationalism+took+place+in+quebec+and+gained+political+
momentum+during+the+quiet+revolution+of+the+early+60's
o
Seperatism+has+lost+its+spark
§
But+quebec+is+being+recognized+as+a+"distinct+cultural+group"+or+nation+
within+canada
§
In+2006,+quebecois+received+recognition+as+a+nation+within+Canada+
§
Moving+forwards+after+1995
o
The+french/english+faultline+(110)
se
§
Ensured+the+continuation+of+the+aristocratic+seigneruria;+landholding+system+and+
guaranteed+religious+freedom+for+the+colony+roman+catholic+majority+
o
Quebec+act+1774
History+and+geography+explain+the+nature+and+complexity+of+contemporary+
Canada
o
Canada+is+both+a+young+and+an+old+country
o
Complexities+are+reflected+in+its+four+faultlines
o
Canada+evolved+from+a+"hard"+country+to+a+"soft"+country+
o
SUMMARY
Module'3'notes'
Friday,+June+24,+2016 9:06+PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class