Loyalists in Quebec
•Eastern townships too vulnerable to American attack.
•settle them north of Lake Ontario
•Had to get Natives' consent (proclamation of 1763)
•during this time, indian territory was large
Native peoples frustated
•left out of the treaty process
•lands ? US
•US not bound by Proclamation of 1763; no longer part of british colonies
•British: buying land
•Natives: sharing land
•Natives end up losing valuable agricultural land.
Grand River (modern south ontario)
•1784, Land grant given to Mohawk loyalalists and six nations allies, on either side of the Grand river.
•they felt safer in British territory and better off; six nations fought with British against americans
•six nations had to move from modern New York in order to take advantage of this grant.
•British were glad to have allies on frontier against americans.
•arrived in 1790s
•some vacated british trading posts in US territory
•more so immigrants than refugees
•others were attracted by land grants
Constitution Act 1791
•Split Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada
•Upper canada (modern Ontario)
•freehold tenure: allowed to apply for a land grant
•Lower Canada (modern Quebec)
•French civil law
•seigneurial system allowed to continue where it existed, but new land grants are under new system
•freehold tenure for future grants
•ensured loyalty from settlers
• Appointed legislative council
•introduce own bills
•veto bills from assembly
•reserve consent to bills
**** important: appointed council had more power
•powerful appointed officials
•legislative council had a lot of power, appointed for life, given large land grants (all to establish a
force/ colonial "aristocracy")
•"clergy reserves": 1/7 of land were worked by people and money goes to church •no separation of church and state
•countered radical tendencies
•First Liuetenant governor John Simcoe
•wanted to replicate English aristocracy and create a "little England" in Canada"
•appointed those in his own class, gave them large grants of land, and patronage positions. Made sure
they got government contracts
•added to the wealth and power of those in his own class.
•Not popular with american immigrants. The idea of such a tightly controlled govt wasn't appealing to
anyone established local govt, social services in districts and towns.
•Set wheels in motion to stop slavery
Cult of Dishonesty
•middle-class ideals of feminitiy
•marriage, strategy to form alliances
•focus on motherhood and domestic realm
•make homes moral havens
•some informal power
•had power in domestic realm, but lives were constrained within domestic realm