Class Notes (836,589)
Canada (509,861)
History (261)
HIST 101 (22)

Hist 101 Notes Full Course Notes

16 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 101
John- Henry Harter

British Post-War Party First Nations after War - fur prices fell o only one buyer - fewer, lower-quality trade goods - displaced o European settlers o Land speculators Royal Proclamation, 1763 - protect native terriotries o lands not held by Britain  “Indian territory” o sales west of Alleghenies  approved by · natives · crown Native Response - resistance, esp inland - some violence – eg pontiac’s uprising, 1763 - wm. Johnson, Molly and Joseph Brant 1768 o negotiated boundaries of Indian territory o ignored Qubec Act 1774 - seigneurial system - English criminal law - French civil law - Catholics in law, government - No elected assembly - Borders extended o Ohio territory o Labrador o Northern areas Dissatisfaction - habitant o traditional land ownership, authority - anglo-prot. Merchants o no democracy - American colonists o Ohio territory annexed - Native groups o Traditional lands annexed - British o Catholic freedoms Nova Scotia - 1758, elected assembly - immigration encouraged - new England “planters” responded to call to settle there o “Yankees”, dissenters protestant religions(those not of church or England).. brought yankee culture - Acadians o Swore allegiance o Fishing settlements - Mix of Europeans, mostly Protestants St. John’s Island (PEI) - land lots – court favourites o improve land o settle prot immigants o pay land taxes - colonial elite - bear cost of settlement - default - escheat o land reverts to Crown o ineffective Newfoundland - small population - dependent on outside supplies - illegal trade - Britain o Some laws and courts o Discouraged settlement - Moravian Missions, Labrador o Christianize and ‘pacify’ Inuit o Schools, medical services, trade goods American Grievances - loss of Ohio territory - british taxes - billeting british forces - coercive acts o restricted right of assembly - tensions,armed clashes - second continental congress o army to liberate Boston, take quebcec BNA responses = quebec elite, pro-health baitants, neutral iroqouis – pragmatic strategies nfld.. pro-British NS halifax pro buritish - halifax pro-brithish - rural areas, neutral - pei neutral Loyallists - most – NS and qubec] - loyalist”tradition” o e;ite o rithish descent and- relatonshp, diversity class fulture rafe rel o crated myth to access privlleges Loyalists in NS - land grants - two new colonies o new brunswisk, cape Breton o some native peoples cut off from fisn and game o some Acadians displaced o black loyalists  less productive ads  discrediscriminationpating – sierra leone  many Oct 17 Listen to first 10 minutes online Rivals in the fur trade: - HBC - British Montreal traders join up with traders to fight against HBC push - form NWC Native Peoples and the Western Fur Trade Positives: - wooed by rivals - rec’d high-quality goods Negatives: - intimidation by traders - dependence of trade goods - loss of sense of community - decline in women’s status Overall mixed experience Trade good that are replacing what they were able to achives Ojibwa - over-harvesting, dislocation - increasing debt - loss of independence Blackfoot - expanded territory - self-sufficiency o BUT o Increasing individualism o violence o decline in women’s status The Metis - mixed white and Native heritages - shared common sense of identity and mixed heritage - cultures drew from native, European, Canadian traditions - saw themselves as culturally distinct - viewed by white and native societies as culturally distinct Metis men in the fur trade - English metis o Labourers at HBC posts - French metis o In own communities o Pemmican to NWC traders o Guides for NWC - Low-status, low paying work - No advancement Red river settlement - 1812, lord Selkirk, near Winnipeg - intended as agricultural colony o supply food to traders - initially unsuccessful Mounting Tensions - NWC felt HBC trying cut off trade with monreal - Metis o Felt threatened by  Settlers  Gov macdonnell’s bans: · Exports of pemmican · Buffalo hunt on horseback Seven Oaks. 1816 - settlers attacked metis militia - metis won - settlers, descendants saw as “massacre” - how an event is remembered is important - “massacre” justified displacing Natives from territories Merger of HBC and NWC, 1821 - Competition o Financial toll o Environmental toll - Merger o Unemployment o Selkirk settlement  Farming for laid-off traders Plains, prairie first nations - decreasing trade and game - turn to agriculture o feed selves o supply traders Coastal Trade: - From mid-1700’s - Native groups - Europeans and americans Natives: - not dependent on trade goods - enhanced own culture o but drawbacks for some: o European diseases o Violent clashes with traders o Perceptions of inferiority Inland trade - Late 1800s/early 1800s - A. Mackenzie, D. Thompson and S. Fraser - Explored BC rivers for NWC - NWC trading posts - More metis families Native traders in NW th - held their own until early 19 century o mergers of HBC and NWC  lack of competition o declining fur resources o encroachment of European settlement Oct 22 (listen to last Monday lecture) Immigration to Maritimes (does not include newfoundland) after 1815 - push factors: o economic recession o land clearances o landlord oppression o religious discrimination o exclusion from politics - pull factors: o socio-economic advancement o independence Immigrant Diversity - Scotland o Commerce, timber trade, shipbuilding, agriculture - Ireland o Timer trade, agriculture o Politics  Religious tensions - Wales, Europe, Africa, Asia Commercial Economy, 1815-1860s - Boom in economy o Staples trade o Shipbuilding – maritimes known for shipbuilding o Carrying trade o Coal-mining o Manufacturing and food processing - Railway - Banks Domestic Economy - “self-sufficient” families o farming, fishing, hunting - Barter, not cash - “truck system” o labour supplies, equipment o workers bound to merchants Social Relations - paternalism, patriarchy, deference - deference to social superiors - women, children subordinate o women’s informal power Religion - Anglican, catholic, Presbyterian - Evangelicalism o Disliked hierarchical structures - Schools, newspapers, charities, missions - Religion bled into local politics o Anglo-prot/irish-cath tensions Political reform - competing ideologies o conservatism  small elite hold power and property o liberalism  power for all men of property o egalitarianism  more inclusive democracy o socialism  end to private property  share means of production - increasing political violence, mass mobilization Reform – PEI - driven by land issue - proprietors not fulfilling responsibilities - land reform unsuccessful - responsible government o means to resolve land problem Reform – New Brunswick - driven by issue of revenues from crown lands - concessions by 1830s o assembly control of crown lands revenues o executive council  limited terms  confidence of assembly Reform – Nova scotia - appointed officials not responsible to assembly - rural NS resented Halifax elite - joseph howe o leader of reform movement o pressed for responsible government Granting of responsible government - move to free trade o no longer needed to control colonies’ trade - 1848 NS first colony to be granted resp govt - 1851 NB and PEI soon after - british jurisdiction over o colonial defence o foreign affairs o constitutional issues Features of resp government - assembly o elected representatives o power over patronage and revenues o limited term (4-5 years) - executive council o “cabinet” or “government” o support of majority of assembly o limited term - cabinet responsible to assembly, not voters - governor/lieutenant-governor o figurehead o ‘expected’ to act on advice of cabinet - legislative council o appointed by gov/lieut-gov o could defeat, amend bills Exclusions - property qualifications - by 1851, franchise for men only - native peoples denied vote in NS - less than 25% of maritimes population could vote Nov 21 Women and the Law, 19 C. th - lower status in formal law - “Unity of person” or coverture o English common law o Married woman’s legal identity subsumed by husband’s  Could not · Hold property · Enter into contracts · Sue or be sued - No legal control over own bodies - Husband could o Not be charged with rape ‘because he could not rape himself’ o Sue for loss of wife’s sexual/domestic services o Control wife’s wages o Beat wife “moderately”  Abused women not to “desert” marriage Divorce - difficult, costly - double standard o husband – prove adultery o wife – prove adultery plus other grounds - act of parliament required - custody of children usually -> husband - wife had to prove adultery AND one other grounds of divorce bestiality molestation etc Quebec Civil Code - community of property - wife’s c
More Less

Related notes for HIST 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.