Class Notes (836,589)
Canada (509,861)
History (261)
HIST 101 (22)
Lecture

Hist 101 Notes Full Course Notes

16 Pages
165 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 101
Professor
John- Henry Harter
Semester
Winter

Description
British Post-War Party First Nations after War - fur prices fell o only one buyer - fewer, lower-quality trade goods - displaced o European settlers o Land speculators Royal Proclamation, 1763 - protect native terriotries o lands not held by Britain  “Indian territory” o sales west of Alleghenies  approved by · natives · crown Native Response - resistance, esp inland - some violence – eg pontiac’s uprising, 1763 - wm. Johnson, Molly and Joseph Brant 1768 o negotiated boundaries of Indian territory o ignored Qubec Act 1774 - seigneurial system - English criminal law - French civil law - Catholics in law, government - No elected assembly - Borders extended o Ohio territory o Labrador o Northern areas Dissatisfaction - habitant o traditional land ownership, authority - anglo-prot. Merchants o no democracy - American colonists o Ohio territory annexed - Native groups o Traditional lands annexed - British o Catholic freedoms Nova Scotia - 1758, elected assembly - immigration encouraged - new England “planters” responded to call to settle there o “Yankees”, dissenters protestant religions(those not of church or England).. brought yankee culture - Acadians o Swore allegiance o Fishing settlements - Mix of Europeans, mostly Protestants St. John’s Island (PEI) - land lots – court favourites o improve land o settle prot immigants o pay land taxes - colonial elite - bear cost of settlement - default - escheat o land reverts to Crown o ineffective Newfoundland - small population - dependent on outside supplies - illegal trade - Britain o Some laws and courts o Discouraged settlement - Moravian Missions, Labrador o Christianize and ‘pacify’ Inuit o Schools, medical services, trade goods American Grievances - loss of Ohio territory - british taxes - billeting british forces - coercive acts o restricted right of assembly - tensions,armed clashes - second continental congress o army to liberate Boston, take quebcec BNA responses = quebec elite, pro-health baitants, neutral iroqouis – pragmatic strategies nfld.. pro-British NS halifax pro buritish - halifax pro-brithish - rural areas, neutral - pei neutral Loyallists - most – NS and qubec] - loyalist”tradition” o e;ite o rithish descent and- relatonshp, diversity class fulture rafe rel o crated myth to access privlleges Loyalists in NS - land grants - two new colonies o new brunswisk, cape Breton o some native peoples cut off from fisn and game o some Acadians displaced o black loyalists  less productive ads  discrediscriminationpating – sierra leone  many Oct 17 Listen to first 10 minutes online Rivals in the fur trade: - HBC - British Montreal traders join up with traders to fight against HBC push - form NWC Native Peoples and the Western Fur Trade Positives: - wooed by rivals - rec’d high-quality goods Negatives: - intimidation by traders - dependence of trade goods - loss of sense of community - decline in women’s status Overall mixed experience Trade good that are replacing what they were able to achives Ojibwa - over-harvesting, dislocation - increasing debt - loss of independence Blackfoot - expanded territory - self-sufficiency o BUT o Increasing individualism o violence o decline in women’s status The Metis - mixed white and Native heritages - shared common sense of identity and mixed heritage - cultures drew from native, European, Canadian traditions - saw themselves as culturally distinct - viewed by white and native societies as culturally distinct Metis men in the fur trade - English metis o Labourers at HBC posts - French metis o In own communities o Pemmican to NWC traders o Guides for NWC - Low-status, low paying work - No advancement Red river settlement - 1812, lord Selkirk, near Winnipeg - intended as agricultural colony o supply food to traders - initially unsuccessful Mounting Tensions - NWC felt HBC trying cut off trade with monreal - Metis o Felt threatened by  Settlers  Gov macdonnell’s bans: · Exports of pemmican · Buffalo hunt on horseback Seven Oaks. 1816 - settlers attacked metis militia - metis won - settlers, descendants saw as “massacre” - how an event is remembered is important - “massacre” justified displacing Natives from territories Merger of HBC and NWC, 1821 - Competition o Financial toll o Environmental toll - Merger o Unemployment o Selkirk settlement  Farming for laid-off traders Plains, prairie first nations - decreasing trade and game - turn to agriculture o feed selves o supply traders Coastal Trade: - From mid-1700’s - Native groups - Europeans and americans Natives: - not dependent on trade goods - enhanced own culture o but drawbacks for some: o European diseases o Violent clashes with traders o Perceptions of inferiority Inland trade - Late 1800s/early 1800s - A. Mackenzie, D. Thompson and S. Fraser - Explored BC rivers for NWC - NWC trading posts - More metis families Native traders in NW th - held their own until early 19 century o mergers of HBC and NWC  lack of competition o declining fur resources o encroachment of European settlement Oct 22 (listen to last Monday lecture) Immigration to Maritimes (does not include newfoundland) after 1815 - push factors: o economic recession o land clearances o landlord oppression o religious discrimination o exclusion from politics - pull factors: o socio-economic advancement o independence Immigrant Diversity - Scotland o Commerce, timber trade, shipbuilding, agriculture - Ireland o Timer trade, agriculture o Politics  Religious tensions - Wales, Europe, Africa, Asia Commercial Economy, 1815-1860s - Boom in economy o Staples trade o Shipbuilding – maritimes known for shipbuilding o Carrying trade o Coal-mining o Manufacturing and food processing - Railway - Banks Domestic Economy - “self-sufficient” families o farming, fishing, hunting - Barter, not cash - “truck system” o labour supplies, equipment o workers bound to merchants Social Relations - paternalism, patriarchy, deference - deference to social superiors - women, children subordinate o women’s informal power Religion - Anglican, catholic, Presbyterian - Evangelicalism o Disliked hierarchical structures - Schools, newspapers, charities, missions - Religion bled into local politics o Anglo-prot/irish-cath tensions Political reform - competing ideologies o conservatism  small elite hold power and property o liberalism  power for all men of property o egalitarianism  more inclusive democracy o socialism  end to private property  share means of production - increasing political violence, mass mobilization Reform – PEI - driven by land issue - proprietors not fulfilling responsibilities - land reform unsuccessful - responsible government o means to resolve land problem Reform – New Brunswick - driven by issue of revenues from crown lands - concessions by 1830s o assembly control of crown lands revenues o executive council  limited terms  confidence of assembly Reform – Nova scotia - appointed officials not responsible to assembly - rural NS resented Halifax elite - joseph howe o leader of reform movement o pressed for responsible government Granting of responsible government - move to free trade o no longer needed to control colonies’ trade - 1848 NS first colony to be granted resp govt - 1851 NB and PEI soon after - british jurisdiction over o colonial defence o foreign affairs o constitutional issues Features of resp government - assembly o elected representatives o power over patronage and revenues o limited term (4-5 years) - executive council o “cabinet” or “government” o support of majority of assembly o limited term - cabinet responsible to assembly, not voters - governor/lieutenant-governor o figurehead o ‘expected’ to act on advice of cabinet - legislative council o appointed by gov/lieut-gov o could defeat, amend bills Exclusions - property qualifications - by 1851, franchise for men only - native peoples denied vote in NS - less than 25% of maritimes population could vote Nov 21 Women and the Law, 19 C. th - lower status in formal law - “Unity of person” or coverture o English common law o Married woman’s legal identity subsumed by husband’s  Could not · Hold property · Enter into contracts · Sue or be sued - No legal control over own bodies - Husband could o Not be charged with rape ‘because he could not rape himself’ o Sue for loss of wife’s sexual/domestic services o Control wife’s wages o Beat wife “moderately”  Abused women not to “desert” marriage Divorce - difficult, costly - double standard o husband – prove adultery o wife – prove adultery plus other grounds - act of parliament required - custody of children usually -> husband - wife had to prove adultery AND one other grounds of divorce bestiality molestation etc Quebec Civil Code - community of property - wife’s c
More Less

Related notes for HIST 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit