Lecture 1: french revolution to 1791 (reading: chapter 18, pp. Existence gives humans the right to their own thoughts, to write and worship according to their conscience. Justice based on class must be done: sovereignty. Popular sovereignty: people embodied the nation, not the monarch therefore the rule of law decided by the people who need a public body. In theory: they wanted all citizens to have equal rights and liberty. In reality: this extended to intellectuals and men. It did not extend to women or slaves. It did not believe that they should be equal economically, but that everyone should have to right to pursue opportunity. Even so, this was a radical notion: not popular democracy. This was not a push for commoners to have power (mob rule), or own land. Nation is a community (very secular: citizenship, popular will, these ideas circulated within a small group of progressive nobles, professional elites, all in.