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Lecture 3

HIST 106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Social Policy, Freedom Of Religion, Independent People

4 pages57 viewsFall 2011

Department
History
Course Code
HIST 106
Professor
Paul Garfinkel
Lecture
3

Page:
of 4
Lecture 3: Napoleon (reading: chapter 19, pp. 561-577)
Lecture questions:
[1] Why did Napoleon return France to authoritarian rule?
[2] Why were his administrative reforms so enduring?
[3] Why did he pursue a Grand Empire across Europe?
[1] Why did Napoleon return France to authoritarian rule?
Basics
15 year rule 1799-1814
From an impoverished noble family, eventually led France in their war abroad
Seized power in 1799 by an invited coup, was going to be a temporary leader
Within 5 years he crowns himself emperor 1804
When first in power created a new constitution (Constitution of 1799) and declared himself
the First Consul, with no democratic power
Ruled by plebiscites, rigged in him favour to assure “popular” decision
Authoritarian rule was a reaction to a very weak Directory
People wanted stability and that was achieved through power (had more than Bourbon
monarchs)
He cuts a deal with the church Concordat of 1801, which brings the church back to France,
but under him, not Rome. (popular with people)
Authoritarian State
Puts prefects in charge of different areas in charge of local affairs
Creates a police state
Prefects become eyes/ears of the state, who keep order and keep government informed
Appointed mayors
Censored press
Created a secrete police to persecute political opponents/Jacobins
Joseph Fouché oversees this all
Patronage
Gives out favour in exchange for loyalty
New social hierarchy based on talent
Bankers: private banks
Church: creates pact
Émigrés: can come back with amnesty and are compensated
Army: becomes new nobility through Napoleon’s Legion of Honor, gives awards/title to
distinguished officers.
[2] Why were his administrative reforms so enduring?
A bureaucracy was seen through
Restructuring tax policy to make country profitable
Filled jobs with talent
Civil servants become loyal because the state pays their salary.
Code of Napoleon 1804 (New Civil Code)
All men are equal before the law
Private property is absolute
Religious liberty
Defended patriarchal power (women given same status as children)
Social Legislation
State orphanages
Soup kitchens/work houses
Legalized prostitutions (regulated) to prevent the spread of STD’s prostitutes are
examined, and paid (to keep military healthy)
He succeeded in stabilization of the state in his reforms (fulfilled moderate phase of the
revolution). He ended the republic and the counter-revolution. Reforms were so good that when
Bourbon’s restored, they keep them. State coercion became a simple fact of life.
[3] Why did he pursue a Grand Empire across Europe?
Idea that France would enlighten Europe
Had a Grand Army
Conscription based on patriotism
Began annexing and colonizing as much as possible
Created a Three Part Empire
French Core (annexed)
Dependent Satellite Kingdoms (nominally in charge)
Independent Allies (Austria, Prussia, Russia)
The greatest impact was on annexed places. This came with French reforms
Feudalism abolished
Church became subordinate
Napoleonic codes in place
Welfare and infrastructure built
Became considered as a tyrant because of taxes, conscription and status
He created a reactive nationalism in annex areas especially
His biggest undoing was in trying to colonize independent people
Legacy
Domestically
Freedom, equality, rule of law, liberalism, spirit of war
More power than the King, or constitutions without any divine right. He claimed to rule
according to the people.
Founder of the modern state
Bureaucracy
Fixed regulations
Police
Data collected
Secularization
Internationally
Wars had extremely high human toll (4 million lives, 3/4 of them soldiers)
Holy Roman Empire collapses under occupation
Germany split into 38 states instead of 300
Places like Italy and Germany saw an increase in nationalism as dependent satellites
His concordat with Catholic church and educational reforms, bureaucracy took root in
other countries (secularization)
Reforms were not so much brought about on battle field but through his “civilizing mission”
Study terms:
Napoleon Bonaparte
Bonapartism
18th Brumaire
Constitution of 1799 (of the Year VIII)
Consulate
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon’s self-coronation as emperor (1804)
Administrative state
Civil service4

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