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Lecture 5

Hist 106 Lecture 5.docx

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HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

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Lecture 5 INDUSTRIALIZATION Lecture questions: [1] Why did industrialization happen first in Britain? [2] Why did industrialization revolutionize work? [3] Why did industrialization affect urban societies? [1] Why did industrialization happen first in Britain? • The term Industrial Revolution was first coined in the 1820’s and was not planned • Britain was economically dominant both internationally and domestically − They could ship easily and cheaply (because over seas) • Good agriculture with up to date farmers − by 1750 agriculturally self sufficient. − Peasants were paid in wages due to enclosures (closing off privately held land/no more lordships) − Peasants could provide the available labour source • Had a centralized bank and credit system • Had a stable government that did not interfere in free market economy These benefits resulted in • Rapid growth (head start on Europe of 60 yrs) − Of output − GNP − Population The chronology • Began in textiles (mostly cotton) − Replaced peasant made industry for cloth − Mechanized looms, spinning jennies, water frames invented • Emergence of coal, iron and steam − 1780’s James Watt creates coal powered machinery − Coal used to power engines that are used to extract coal − Steam machines further mechanize cotton and iron industries − Iron was formerly rare and made England extremely rich • Railroad − Railroad emerges to transport to factories and towns − Allows for more workers, goods, and cheaper prices − Speed/power/mobility go up − Railroad workers become urban workers for factories [2] Why did industrialization revolutionize work? • The work force was different: former peasants have had land taken away (end of feudalism) and need employment. • The conditions were different: prisons, poorhouses, children used Before IR
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