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Lecture 7

Hist 106 Lecture 7.docx

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HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

Lecture 7: Nationalism & Unifications (reading: chapter 22, pp. 662-674, 676, 678-680) Lecture questions: [1] Why had nationalism changed after 1848? [2] Why was Italian unification a strange accident (or a “flawed revolution”)? [3] Why were German and Austrian unions so different? [1] Why had nationalism changed after 1848? Context: Post 1848 Europe − Still era of social and economic change − General prosperity in 1850’s − Identity with nation states as a way to deal with the dual revolution Reaction: Post ‘48 − Realpolitik (realism) as a reaction to the romanticism of 1848 ideals − This involved a strong state and public order. Ie. Harnessing nationalism. − This harnessing of nationalism took the form of revolution from above instead of below. Revolution from above • Comes from state driven economic modernization • States control nationalistic fervour as a means to nation building • Tough diplomacy instead of wars of conquest (power politics) • Economic good times = more loyalty to the state • Interests of the state take precedence • Bureaucracy strengthened and the reach of the state extends • Promotion of arts and culture to keep national pride [2] Why was Italian unification a strange accident (or a “flawed revolution”)? • 1848 Sardinia was a monarchy (House of Savoy) and strongest on the peninsula • Had a stable army, government, liberal middle class etc. • Created a Constitution in 1848 to avoid uprising − Gave civil liberties − More voters − Constitution (Statuto) − Parliament • Won over the liberal middle class by not revoking these measures • Had a war withAustria twice which won the hearts of nobles and elites who love to drive out foreigners and want the make Italy great again • Peidmont is anti-republican, austrian and papal • Lasting changes were allowed in this case Count Cavour • Dominated Piedmontese politics • Was a liberal officer who was very rich and created a lot of infrastructure • In the Crimean War he sent troops to fight against Russia and got favour from other international powers. • In Austrian wars gets territory in the north fromAustria which makes nationalists like him. • He snowballs south with plebiscites to join his state • He also supports Giribaldi in trying to overthrow the Sicilian monarchs, but he runs into him when Girbaldi moves north. Southern Problem • Major discrepancies from North to South • South is agrarian, underdeveloped, poor, diseased... • The southern landowners resist unification because they were the local elite • They create a mafia to get around a central authority • The new state could not bring i
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