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Lecture 8

Hist 106 Lecture 8.docx

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HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

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Lecture 8: Britain, France, Russia: Nation-building after 1850 (reading: chapter 22, pp. 674- 676, 680-688) NOTE: For Kagan’s coverage of the Revolution of 1905 in Russia, please jump ahead to Chapter 23, pp. 714-721. Lecture questions: [1] Why did Britain continue to lead the way in liberal reformism? [2] Why did France go from a Second Empire to Third Republic (within two decades)? [3] Why did Russia reemerge as a major power after Crimea? Bonus question: Was the Revolution of 1905 Russia’s 1848? Remember: 1848 failed but recognized that reforms were necessary to maintain stability and create economic prosperity Domestic Policies in Nation Building • Modernization • Reform • Nationalism (from above) • Loyalty New ideas of mass politics that is that government must appeal to the lower people as well Also mass loyalty, that is a broad social base could give governments power Models Britain • Liberal reformism • Social activism by elites France • Second Republic by Napoleon • Third Republic Russia • Conservative reforms by Tsar • Despite autocracy there is socio-economic change [1] Why did Britain continue to lead the way in liberal reformism? UK Gradualism • There was no 1848, but had always preferred gradual reform • Generally prosperous • Victorian era: politically stable − Symbolized middle class virtue − Prudery, piety, patriarchy − Idea that one could achieve change peacefully Two Party System • Torries v. Whigs • Liberal consensus attained in representational government • Both parties looking for more ways to appeal to more people − Competition to expand the political nation − More middle class voters • Second Reform Bill/Act (Torries) − Added one million more voters • Third Reform Bill/Act (Whigs) − Added three million more voters • The old interests in agrarian elites were not there anymore. If parties wanted legitimacy to every day workers, they needed to include more voters. • Interest groups + politics = votes − Social activist groups formed − Trade unions − Child labour outlawed − Poor relief • In other words, the appeal to mass politics kept social reform moving Imperialism • “civilizing mission” • To build their nation, Britain had a common mission for British supremacy – the right to vote brought people into that mission and created mass loyalty Domestic and political culture (gradualism), competition for votes between the two parties, and a common mission of imperialism explained the push for social reform and welfare schemes. [2] Why did France go from a Second Empire to Third Republic (within two decades)? Second Empire (1851-70) Napoleon III revives Boneapartism • Popular forces and conservatism in authoritarian nationalism • Plebiscites take the place of a parliament and legislature • In 1848, Napoleon won election and served his 4 yr term with the majority of votes (peasant votes) • He conspires with the army to stage a coup • 1851 holds a plebiscite to make him president for 10 yrs. − 92% of the vote • 1852 holds plebiscite to make him hereditary emperor − 97% approval to make him Napoleon III *plebiscites are clearly rigged Mix bag Successes: domestic works • Banks • Infrastructure • Urban planning All these create jobs and economic prosperity, they also win him the workers’support by giving them • Right to strike • Right to unionize An example of revolution from above Failure: Foreign Policy • Italy • Vatican • Prussia Liberalists did not like his expansion or th
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